Bambang Riyanto L. S(1*), Gugup Kismono(2)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


This paper compares and contrasts the two popular ways of seeing an organization, machine and organic paradigms. It is argued that a better understanding of these different characteristics is a necessary requirement to obtain a more accurate assessment about organizational problems and or potentials. The both paradigms concern with ways to protect organizations from any tendency of dysfunction; they represent rational attempts to exploit the resources of the organizations in the most efficient manner, given their environmental constraints. Furthermore, both offer methods to divide organizational activities in an ordered (or hierarchical) manner. However, the two paradigms differs in, at least, five important respects, namely the criteria of effectiveness (machine: maximize efficiency and production vs. organic: maximize flexibility, satisfaction and development); organizational structure (machine: functional/division of labor vs. organic: deemphasis of specialization); assumptions about human resource (machine: extrinsically motivated vs. organic: intrinsically motivated); control mechanism (machine: rigid standards vs. organic: create selfdevotion). Using the contingency approach, the paper suggests that the machine paradigm ought to be adopted in analyzing organizations living in a more stable environment, whereas the organic paradigm should be adopted in analyzing organizations living in a more turbulent environment.

Full Text:



Burns, T. and G.M. Stalker. (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock Publication.

Hall, R. (1963). The Concept of Bureaucracy: An Empirical Assessment. American Journal of Sociology Vol. 69.

Kuhn, T.S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolution. Second Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Morgan, G. (1986). Images of Organization. London: Sage Publication.

Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch cited from John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson, Jr. (1989). Management. Fifth Edition. New York: Random House, Inc.

Perrow, C. (1986). Complex Organization: A Critical Essay. New York: Random House

R. Duncan cited from John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson, Jr. (1989). Management. Fifth Edition. New York: Random House, Inc.

Resis Linkert cited from James L. Gibson, John M. Ivancevich, James H. Donelly, Jr. (1997). Organization: Behavior, Structure, Process. Ninth Edition. Chicago: Irwin.

Scott, R. (1987). Organization: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Sheldon, A. 1980. Organizational Paradigm: A Theory of Organizational Change Organizational Dynamic Vol. 8.

Wenninger, E. (1976). Enthropy, Equilibrium, and Organization - Problem and Conceptualization. Organization and Adminstrative Science Journal.

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 613 | views : 1174


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business


Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism


Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement
Author Fees


Author Pack
Submission Form & Manuscript Template



Reviewer Guidelines
Reviewer Acknowledgement



General Search
Author index
Title index



The Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business (print ISSN 2085-8272; online ISSN 2338-5847) is published by the Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 
 Visitor Statistics