TEORI LOKASI: REPRESENTASI LANDASAN MIKRO BAGI TEORI PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH



Prasetyo Soepono(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The birth of a region originates in the optimal location decision of individual
firms. Factors that affect the optimal location of individual firms are transfer
orientation (resources and market), and local input-orientation [energy, labor, inter
mediate inputs (localization economies & urbanization economies), amenities/quality
of life, local public' services, taxes, government incentives, local business climate,
site costs and national political climate & stability]. Once the optimal location of each
individual firm has been determined, the next development is to what extent it can
under price and sell its product. The extent of the market constitutes a market area:
When each of all other firms producing the same products, has possessed its own
market area, those firms have formed the location pattern dominated by dispersion. In
this way, market areas have been established. When all other firm's producing
different products /services can also under price and sell their products in each of
their market areas, each market area becomes a region or a city, depending which one
has more population density. Each market area grows even more into a region or a
city when all other firms producing different products (substitutes and/or
complementary) , chooses to locate in each market area. This makes up the second
location pattern dominated by cohesion (agglomeration). From the viewpoint of the
location theory, a region has firms engaged in all kinds of relationships of economic
activities: vertical, horizontal, and complementary, and all kinds of linkages: forward
and backward. Based on this, a region develops. During its process of development, a
region may succeed or fail. When it fails, it can be corrected by both local and central
governments by adopting appropriate regional policies oriented first to the micro
foundation and then to the macro foundation of the development process of the
region.

Seperti dalam ekonomi makro, diakui pentingnya landasan mikro, sehingga
kebijakan makro dapat lebih tepat dan efektif (Branson, 1990). Demikian pula dalam
Ekonomi Regional dikenal dan diakui pentingnya landasan mikro (Hoover &
Giarratani,1984, Blair, 1991, O'SulIivan, 1996). Landasan mikro yang dimaksud
dalam Ekonomi Regional adalah teori lokasi. Oleh karena itu, mempelajari Ekonomi
Regional hendaknya didahului dulu dengan topik atau bab tentang lokasi suatu
aktivitas ekonomi (aspek mikro) di mana diuraikan bagaimana tumbuhnya suatu
daerah dimulai ketika suatu aktivitas ekonomi berupa aktivitas produksi atau aktivitas
manufaktur atau aktivitas jasa semula menetapkan lokasi optimalnya berdasarkan
orientasi transportasi, kemudian berubah lokasinya berdasarkan orientasi lain yang
lebih baik, dan seterusnya yang akhirnya berakibat dengan munculnya suatu wilayah
atau daerah.
Pentingnya landasan mikro adalah agar pengambil keputusan (pemerintah
pusat atau pemerintah daerah) jangan sampai mengambil kebijakan daerah yang salah
dan fatal dalam perencanaan daerah dan dalam penentuan wilayah-wilayah dalam
suatu negara yang lebih berorientasi pada faktor ekonomi dari-pada faktor non
ekonomi {nodal regions vs. homogeneous regions/administrative regions). Apalagi
negara kita sedang mengalami reformasi yang juga menuntut dihidupkannya otonomi
daerah sehingga pemerintah pusat harus akurat dan tepat dalam merumuskan
kebijakan daerah agar mendapat dukungan rakyat yang makin kritis dan yang sedang
membangun ekonominya sebagai ganti ekonomi konglomerat yang telah membawa
ekonomi Indonesia terpuruk dalam krisis ekonomi dan moneter. Dengan
memperhatikan landasan mikro, kebijakan daerah tidak lagi datang dari atas tanpa
memperhatikan perilaku pelaku-pelaku ekonomi individual (pembentukan daerah
adminitratif spt, propinsi, kabupaten, kecamatan), tetapi kebijakan daerah yang
berorientasi pada prinsip ekonomi, motif ekonomi dan aspirasi para pelaku ekonomi
individual.
Tujuan dari makalah ini adalah untuk meminta perhatian kembali atau
memperjelas atau mengingatkan/menyadarkan kembali bagaimana suatu aktivitas
ekonomi (mikro) yang berprinsip ekonomi dalam rangka mencapai hasil optimalnya
(keuntungan maksimumnya) harus mengambil keputusan lokasi optimalnya dan bila
sekelompok aktivitas-aktivitas ekonomi itu berbuat hal yang sama (dispersion) dan secara bersama menempati lokasi yang sama (aglomerasi) dalam jangka panjang akan menimbulkan pertumbuhan suatu daerah umumnya dan kota khususnya.


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