WILL CONTINUED ECONOMIC GROWTH BRING EVER GREATER HARM TO THE EARTH’S ENVIRONMENT?: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE



Poppy Ismalina(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Pertumbuhan ekonomi telah lama menjadi orientasi dominan dalam pelaksanaan pembangunan di hampir seluruh negara di bumi raya ini. Namun demikian, orang tidak dapat mengingkari bahwa kian hari, kian lama, udara yang mereka hirup semakin tak segar, suhu bumi makin tak menentu, dan makin berkurang kekayaan sumber daya alam sebagai sarana produksi. Kesadaran ini akhirnya melahirkan kepedulian akan pembangunan yang memperhatikan lingkungan hidup sekitar. Seiring dengan peningkatan kepedulian orang akan kualitas lingkungan hidup, para ekonom mulai merancang dan merumuskan konsep, teori maupun model, yang menjelaskan hubungan antara kualitas lingkungan hidup dan pembangunan ekonomi.  Tulisan ini menjelaskan dampak pembangunan ekonomi terhadap kualitas lingkungan hidup. Hipotesis Kuznets mengatakan bahwa pada pada awal upaya pertumbuhan ekonomi, kualitas lingkungan hidup akan menurun tetapi lambat laun akan meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan aktivitas ekonomi. Persoalannya adakah dukungan empiris atas hipotesis tersebut? Selain memaparkan tentang perdebatan teori di kalangan ekonom mengenai keterkaitan antara pertumbuhan ekonomi dan kualitas lingkungan hidup, tulisan ini menampilkan pula studi-studi empiris di beberapa negara yang menguji hipotesis Kuznet tersebut.

Keywords


Kuznets Curve, Pollutants, Economic growth, Environmental quality

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