A High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar Simulation Using FMCW Technique for Ship Detection


Ahmad Nugroho Jati(1*), Ahmad Fauzi Haqqoni(2), Iswandi Iswandi(3), Risanuri Hidayat(4)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Indonesia is an archipelagic country with a vast sea area. This vast sea area becomes a challenge in conducting regional surveillance to maintain maritime conditions. The use of buoys and satellites still has shortcomings in carrying out surveillance despite its excellent surveillance capabilities. A high-frequency radar technology with 3-30 MHz frequency and surface wave propagation are very suitable because it has a radar range that can cross the horizon or commonly refer to as Over the Horizon (OTH). The Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technique on this radar obtains distance and velocity information by a continuously transmitted frequency modulation. The use of radar in Indonesia for marine surveillance is still infrequent. Therefore, it is relatively difficult to conduct testing and obtain data. In addition, the direct examination requires extended time, so a simulation program is needed. This paper discusses the design of a High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) simulation program using FMCW modulation technique. The simulation program detected two objects based on time delays due to the distance and velocity of the object with a maximum range of 350 km. It displayed the results in an informative manner. The object detection was based on the results of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) from the mixed signals. The mixed signal is a combination of transmitted signal and reflected signal in which there are time delay components due to the object. The simulation program had been tested with input values of distance and velocity that vary, both for one object and two objects, in the radial direction. It generated output that was close to the input value with a level of accuracy of ± 2 km.


Fast Fourier Transform; FMCW; Doppler Frequency; HFSWR; Radar

Full Text:



(2018) “Rujukan Nasional Data Kewilayahan: Luas NKRI 8,3 Juta Kilometer Persegi,” [Online], http://www.big.go.id, access date: 2-Dec-2018.

A. Dzvonkovskaya, K.-W. Gurgel, H. Rohling, and T. Schlick, “HF Radar WERA Application for Ship Detection and Tracking,” European Journal of Navigation, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 18-25, 2009.

K.-W. Gurgel and T. Schlick, “Compatibility of FMCW Modulated HF Surface Wave Radars with Radio Services,” International Radar Symposium IRS 2007, 2007, pp. 255-258.

K.-W. Gurgel and T. Schlick, “Remarks on Signal Processing in HF Radars Using FMCW Modulation,” International Radar Symposium IRS 2009, 2009, pp. 63-67.

C. Iphar, A. Napoli, and C. Ray, “Detection of False AIS Messages for the Improvement of Maritime Situational Awareness,” OCEANS 2015 – MTS/IEEE Washington, 2015, pp. 1-7.

H. Li, Y. He, and W. Wang, “Improving Ship Detection with Polarimetric SAR based on Convolution between Co-polarization Channels,” Sensors, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 1221-1236, 2009.

A.V. Dolgopolov, P.A. Kazantsev, and N.N. Bezuhliy, “Ship Detection in Image Obtained from the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV),” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 46, pp. 1-7, 2016.

D.E. Barrick, “FM/CW Radar Signals and Digital Processing,” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tech. report, pp. 1-22, 1973.

H.D. Griffiths, “New Ideas in FM Radar,” Electronics and Communication Engineering Journal, Vol. 2, No. 5, p. 185-194, 1990.

M. Ash, M. Ritchie, K. Chetty, and P.V. Brennan, “A New Multistatic FMCW Radar Architecture by Over-the-Air Deramping,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12, pp. 7045-7053, 2015.

A. Strobel, R. Eickhoff, A. Ziroff, and F. Ellinger, “Comparison of Pulse and FMCW based Radiolocation for Indoor Tracking Systems,” 2010 Future Network and Mobile Summit, 2010, pp. 1-8.

R.H. Khan and D. Mitchell, “Waveform Analysis for High-Frequency FMICW Radar,” IEE Proceedings F (Radar and Signal Processing), Vol. 138, No. 5, pp. 411-419, 1991.

K.-W. Gurgel, A. Dzvonkovskaya, T. Pohlmann, T. Schlick, and E. Gill, “Simulation and Detection of Tsunami Signatures in Ocean Surface Currents Measured by HF Radar,” Ocean Dynamic, Vol. 61, No. 10, pp. 1495-1507, 2011.

L. Sevgi, A. Ponsford, and H. Chan, “An Integrated Maritime Surveillance System Based on High-Frequency Surface-Wave Radars, Part 1: Theoritical Background and Numerical Simulations,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 28-43, 2001.

S. Aulia, S. Tjondronegoro, and R. Kurnia, “Analisis Pengolahan Sinyal Radar Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave untuk Deteksi Target,” Jurnal Nasional Teknik Elektro, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 51-64, 2013.

S. Suleymanov, “Design and Implementation of an FMCW Radar Signal Processing Module for Automotive Applications,” Master thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands, 2016.

C. Wolff (2019) “Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Radar (FMCW Radar),” Radar Tutorial, [Online], http://www.radartutorial.eu/02.basics/Frequency%20Modulated%20Continuous%20Wave%20Radar.en.html, access date: 29-Jul-2019.

D. Utyansky, "Digital Signal Processing for Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave RADARs," Synopsys, Inc., California, pp. 1-11, 2018.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijitee.56344

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 776 | views : 963


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 IJITEE (International Journal of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN  : 2550-0554 (online)

Contact :

Department of Electrical engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering
Universitas Gadjah Mada

Jl. Grafika No 2 Kampus UGM Yogyakarta

+62 (274) 552305

Email : ijitee.ft@ugm.ac.id