Telaah Pustaka Ciri dan Metode-metode Identifikasi Kuman Mycobacteria Tuberculosis

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijeis.3838

Novrido Charibaldi(1*), Agus Harjoko(2)

(1) 
(2) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstrak

Tuberculosis (TB)  merupakan penyakit paling berbahaya ketiga yang menyebabkan kematian yang disebabkan kuman Mycobacteria Tuberculosis (MTB). Sejak 1992 WHO telah mencanangkan TB sebagai Global Emergency. WHO melaporkan 8-9 juta orang tertular setiap tahun.  Sejak  tahun  2004 angka kematian yang disebabkan TB rata-rata 8000 setiap hari dan 2-3 juta setiap tahun. Identifikasi kuman MTB adalah permasalahan yang solusinya melibatkan berbagai cabang ilmu pengetahuan (ilmu penyakit dalam, biologi molekuler pathogen, mikrobiologi klinis, teknik kimia, bioinformatika dan teknik biomedis, matematika, dan sistem cerdas dalam ilmu komputer dan elektronika). Penularan kuman MTB sangat cepat tersebar melalui udara yang membawa partikel-partikel dalam 3000 percikan dahak penderita TB saat mereka batuk atau bersin kemudian terhisap orang yang sehat, sehingga identifikasi yang cepat dan tepat terhadap bakteri ini sangat berguna untuk menghambat penyebarannya. Ada banyak identifier kuman MTB yang dapat digunakan yaitu warna koloni biakan (2-8 minggu), foto torax, struktur molekul, kode DNA, dan chromatogram dari biomarker. Ada banyak pula pendekatan untuk mengidentifikasi MTB yaitu  microscopy, analisa foto sinar-x, analisa kimia, analisa biologi molekuler, analisa genetika, dan proses kromatografi gas/cair dengan dukungan hidung elektronik dan komputer. Dalam paper ini telah dibahas berbagai ciri dan pendekatan yang telah dikembangkan untuk mengidentifikasi kehadiran kuman MTB dalam biakan, hembusan nafas dan/atau dahak pasien. 

 

Kata kunciMTB, chromatogram, biomarker, hidung elektronik, sistem cerdas.

 

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is the third most dangerous disease that causes deaths that caused by Mycobacteria Tuberculosis (MTB). Since 1992 WHO has declared TB a Global Emergency. WHO reported 8-9 million people are infected every year. Since 2004 the death rate that caused TB is 8000 per day and 2-3 millions per year. Identification of MTB germ is a problem whose solution involves various branches of science (the science of lung disease, pathogen molecular biology, clinical microbiology, chemical engineering, bioinformatics and biomedical engineering, mathematics, and intelligent systems in computer science and electronics). MTB germ infection is very fast because they are spread through the air that carrying the particles in 3000 sparks of TB patients’ sputum when they are coughing or sneezing and then inhaled by a healthy person, so that speed and precise identification of these bacteria are very useful to inhibit its spread. There are many MTB germ identifiers that can be used, they are the color of breeding colonies (2-8 weeks), the torax image, the structure of molecules, the DNA code, and the chromatogram of biomarkers. There are many approaches for identification of MTB, they are microscopy, x-ray analysis, chemical analysis, analysis of molecular biology, genetic analysis, and process of gas/liquid chromatography that supported electronic noses and a computer. This paper discussed the various features and approaches that have been developed for identification of the presence of MTB germ in culture, blast of breath and/or patients’ sputum.

 

KeywordsMTB, chromatogram, biomarkers, electronic nose, intelligent systems.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijeis.3838

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