Adsorpsi Zat Warna Kristal Violet Menggunakan Limbah Kulit Singkong (Manihot esculenta)



Heni Irawati(1*), Nurul Hidayat Aprilita(2), Eko Sugiharto(3)

(1) 
(2) Departemen Kimia, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Departemen Kimia, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pemanfaatan limbah kulit singkong sebagai biosorben untuk mengadsorpsi zat warna kristal violet dengan sistem batch. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan biosorben kulit singkong yang dikarakterisasi dengan spektrofotometer Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) untuk mengetahui gugus fungsi, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) untuk mempelajari morfologi permukaan biosorben dan Surface Area Analyzer (SAA) untuk mengetahui luas permukaan. Uji kemampuan adsorpsi biosorben kulit singkong terhadap zat warna kristal violet dilakukan pada berbagai variasi massa biosorben, pH larutan, waktu kontak dan konsentrasi awal kristal violet. Selanjutnya dilakukan studi kinetika, isoterm dan energi adsorpsi. Hasil karakterisasi FTIR sebelum adsorpsi zat warna kristal violet menunjukkan adanya gugus C-H, O-H, C-O dan C=O dari lignoselulosa yang terkandung dalam kulit singkong. Terdapat pergeseran bilangan gelombang setelah terjadinya adsorpsi pada gugus O-H dan C-O serta munculnya puncak baru gugus C-N dari zat warna kristal violet yang mengindikasikan adanya interaksi antara biosorben dengan zat warna kristal violet. Karakterisasi SEM menunjukkan morfologi permukaan biosorben yang heterogen dan memiliki luas permukaan 0,85 m2 g-1. Pada konsentrasi awal zat warna kristal violet 100 mg L-1 sebanyak 20 mL diperoleh keadaan optimum massa biosorben 0,10 g, pH 7 dan waktu kontak 210 menit dengan kapasitas adsorpsi 19,41 mg g-1. Kinetika adsorpsi zat warna kristal violet pada biosorben kulit singkong mengikuti persamaan kinetika orde dua semu dengan laju reaksi sebesar 2,26 x 10-2 g mg-1 menit-1. Tipe isoterm yang sesuai yaitu tipe isoterm Freundlich dan berlangsung secara kemisorpsi dengan energi adsorpsi sebesar 22,38 kJ mol-1.


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