Studi Pola Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sawi (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis L.) Hidroponik di dalam Greenhouse Terkontrol

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.10690

Mareli Telaumbanua(1*), Bambang Purwantana(2), Lilik Sutiarso(3), Mohammad Affan Fajar Falah(4)

(1) Jurusan Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The vegetables should be cultivated in an optimal way to obtain maximum yield. In tropical regions such in Indonesia, the growth of vegetables are influenced by climate factors such as humidity, temperature, nutrients and light. To gain the optimal and controlled condition during the growth periode, mustard plants could be cultivated hydroponically in a greenhouse. This study was conducted to identify the growth pattern of mustard (Brassica rappa var. Parachinensis L.) that hydroponically planted in a greenhouse which is equipped with a temperature, nutrients and light control. The aim of this research is to determine the best factors combination that provide the most optimum growth. This research was conducted by three treatments that were temperature, nutrition, and light. Each of the treatment has three variations : temperature (32 °C, 35 °C, and 38 °C), nutrition (2 mS/cm, 5 mS/cm, and 8 mS/cm), and light (7000 lux, 12000 lux, and 17000 lux) so there were 27 cultivation spaces or greenhouses used with different micro-climates. The growth rate was determined by the area of the leaf and it was measured during 48 days of cultivation. Control in each greenhouse is done by a pump actuator, incandescent bulbs and TL lamps. The result showed that temperature, nutrients and light affect on the growth of mustard. By single factor analysis, we found that maximum leaf area was produced at a temperature of 35 °C that was 565 cm-, nutrition 5 mS/cm that was 639.27 cm- and 17000 lux light that was 697.42 cm-. In short, the best growth rate was obtained at a temperature of 35 °C, nutrition of 5 mS/cm, and 17000 lux of light yield 1068.82 cm- of leaf area.

ABSTRAK

Tanaman sayuran harus dibudidayakan dengan optimal agar diperoleh hasil yang maksimal. Di wilayah tropis seperti di  Indonesia,  pertumbuhan  tanaman  sayuran  dipengaruhi  oleh  beberapa  faktor  iklim  seperti  kelembaban,  suhu, nutrisi dan cahaya. Untuk memperoleh kondisi yang optimal dan terkendali selama periode pertumbuhan, tanaman sawi dibudidayakan secara hidroponik di dalam greenhouse. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi pola pertumbuhan tanaman sawi (Brassica  rappa var. parachinensis L.) yang dibudidayakan secara hidroponik di dalam greenhouse yang dilengkapi dengan kendali suhu, nutrisi dan cahaya. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan kombinasi faktor terbaik yang memberikan pertumbuhan paling optimal. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memberikan tiga perlakuan dengan tiga variasi yaitu suhu (32 °C, 35 °C, dan 38 °C), nutrisi (2 mS/cm, 5 mS/cm, dan 8 mS/cm), dan cahaya (7000 lux, 12000 lux, dan 17000 lux) sehingga terdapat 27 ruang budidaya atau greenhouse dengan iklim mikro yang berbeda. Tingkat pertumbuhan ditentukan berdasarkan luas daun dan diukur selama 48 hari budidaya. Kendali di dalam masing- masing greenhouse dilakukan oleh aktuator pompa, lampu pijar dan lampu TL (Flourescent Lamp). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan suhu, nutrisi dan cahaya berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan tanaman sawi. Dari hasil analisis faktor tunggal, luas daun maksimum dihasilkan pada suhu 35 °C yaitu 565 cm-, nutrisi 5 mS/cm yaitu 639,27 cm- dan cahaya 17000 lux yaitu 697,42 cm-. Secara kombinasi, tingkat pertumbuhan terbaik diperoleh pada perlakuan suhu 35 °C, nutrisi 5 mS/cm, dan cahaya 17000 lux dengan hasil luas daun mencapai 1068,82 cm-.


Keywords


Light; mustard plants; nutrition; temperature

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.10690

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