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KONTAMINASI MERKURI PADA SAMPEL LINGKUNGAN DAN FAKTOR RISIKO PADA MASYARAKAT DARI KEGIATAN PENAMBANGAN EMAS SKALA KECIL KRUENG SABEE PROVINSI ACEH (Mercury Contamination in the Environmental Samples and Risk Factors in Inhabitants of the Small Scale Gold)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18803

Sofia Sofia(1*), Adi Heru Husodo(2)

(1) Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam-Banda Aceh 2311.
(2) Bagian Kesehatan Lingkungan dan Kesehatan Kerja, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kegiatan penambangan emas skala kecil dengan teknik amalgamasi dapat memberikan peluang introduksi merkuri (Hg) ke lingkungan dan manusia. Penelitian kontaminasi Hg pada air minum, ikan, rambut kepala manusia, dan faktor risiko pada manusia telah dilakukan di wilayah Krueng Sabee, Provinsi Aceh. Metode pengambilan dan pengujian sampel yang mengandung Hg dilakukan dengan prosedur SNI, EPA dan WHO. Rancangan cross sectional survey dilakukan pada empat desa dengan 72 responden yang dipilih secara acak. Wawancara dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur untuk mendapatkan informasi terkait faktor risiko kesehatan. Pengukuran konsentrasi Hg untuk sampel air dan ikan dilakukan dengan Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer dan untuk sampel rambut kepala menggunakan Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis varian, uji t sampel bebas, dan uji t satu sampel. Model prediksi dihasilkan menggunakan analisis regresi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan konsentrasi Hg pada sampel air sumur sebesar 0,24 ± 0,25 µg/L; sampel ikan: Rastrellinger kanagurta,149,46 ± 2,00 µg/g, Selaroides sp, 58,6 ± 3,01 µg/g, Euthynnus affinis, 46,3 ± 2,98 µg/g; dan pada rambut kepala mulai dari 11,2 ± 4,02 µg/g hingga 48,3 ± 22,29 µg/g. Faktor-faktor risiko yang berpengaruh terhadap konsentrasi Hg pada responden adalah status bekerja di Krueng Sabee, lokasi, lama tinggal, status pekerja tambang dan lama penggunaan pembakar amalgam. Faktor-faktor risiko ini memberi peran sebesar 45,8% terhadap akumulasi Hg di dalam rambut kepala responden.

 

ABSTRACT

Small-scale gold mining activities with amalgamation process can contribute the entry of mercury (Hg) into environment and humans. Research on Hg contamination in drinking water, fish, human head hair, and risk factors has been conducted in the area of Krueng Sabee, Aceh Province. Methods of samples collection and Hg concentrations testing conducted by SNI, EPA and WHO procedures. A cross sectional survey was conducted in four villages with 72 respondents which were randomly selected. The interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire to obtain information related to health risk factors. Measurement of Hg concentration in drinking water and fish samples were conducted by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and for head hair sample using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance, independent samples t-test and t-test of one sample. Predictive models generated using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed Hg concentration in well water was 0.24 ± 0.25 µg/g; in fish samples were: Rastrellinger kanagurta, 149.46 ± 2.00 µg/g, Selaroides sp, 58.6 ± 3.01 µg/g, Euthynnus affinis, 46.3 ± 2.98 µg/g; and in head hair ranging from 11.2 ± 4.02 µg/g to 48.3 ± 22.29 µg/g. Risk factors that were correlated with respondent’s head hair Hg concentration were working in Krueng Sabee, village location, length of stay, role in mining process, and length of contact with amalgamation combustion. These risk factors giving a role of 45.8% to the accumulation of Hg in the head hair of respondents.

 


Keywords


faktor risiko; Krueng Sabee; kontaminasi; merkuri; penambangan emas; rambut manusia; contamination; human hair; mercury; risk factors; small-scale gold mining.



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18803

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