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TIMBULAN SAMPAH B3 RUMAHTANGGA DAN POTENSI DAMPAK KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN DI KABUPATEN SLEMAN, YOGYAKARTA (Generation of Household Hazardous Solid Waste and Potential Impacts on Environmental Health in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18789

Iswanto Iswanto(1*), Sudarmadji Sudarmadji(2), Endang Tri Wahyuni(3), Adi Heru Sutomo(4)

(1) Jurusan Kesehatan Lingkungan, Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Yogyakarta, Jl. Tatabumi no.3, Banyuraden, Gamping, Sleman 55293
(2) Departemen Geografi dan Ilmu Lingkungan, Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(3) Departemen Kimia, Fakultas MIPA Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(4) Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Sampah rumahtangga yang mengandung Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3) seperti baterai, lampu listrik, elektronik, kemasan pestisida, pemutih pakaian, pembersih lantai, cat, kaleng bertekanan (aerosol), sisa obat-obatan, termometer dan jarum suntik berpotensi mengancam kesehatan manusia dan lingkungan. Meskipun kuantitas sampah B3 rumahtangga (SB3-RT) di Kabupaten Sleman hanya 2,44 g/orang/hari atau sekitar 0,488% dari sampah domestik, tetapi karena memiliki karakteristik mudah meledak, mudah terbakar, reaktif, beracun, infeksius dan/atau korosif maka sangat membahayakan bagi kesehatan dan lingkungan (air, tanah, udara). Sampai saat ini, SB3-RT di Kabupaten Sleman masih ditangani seperti layaknya sampah domestik, yaitu dibakar, dibuang ke sungai, ditimbun di pekarangan, dibuang ke tempat pembuangan sampah ilegal atau dibuang ke Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir (TPA) Piyungan. Jenis SB3-RT yang banyak ditemukan adalah sampah elektronik (24,91%), lampu listrik bekas (18,08%) dan baterai bekas (16,71%). Ketiga jenis sampah tersebut mengandung berbagai unsur logam berat seperti Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, Li, Sb dan Fe yang umumnya bersifat toksik, karsinogenik dan akumulatif yang dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia secara langsung atau melalui rantai makanan. Pemaparan bahan berbahaya beracun (B3) dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada berbagai jaringan/organ tubuh pada masyarakat sekitar tempat pembuangan, petugas sampah, pemulung, pengepul, pemanfaat dan pelaku daur ulang SB3-RT. Oleh karena itu SB3-RT perlu dikelola sebagaimana mestinya sesuai dengan sifat dan karakteristiknya.

 

ABSTRACT

Household solid waste containing hazardous and toxic materials such as batteries, electric light, electronics, pesticides, bleach, cleaner, paint, pressurized cans (aerosol), unused medicines, thermometers and syringes can threaten human and environment. Although the quantity of Household Hazardous Solid Waste (HHSW) in Sleman Regency only 2.44 g/person/day or approximately 0.49% of domestic waste, but because it has the characteristics of explosive, flammable, reactive, toxic, infectious and/or corrosive then potentially cause health and environmental issues (water, soil, air) seriously. Until now, HHSW in Sleman still handled like domestic waste, which is burned, dumped into the river, dumped in the yard, disposed into illegal dumping or dumped into the final disposal site (TPA Piyungan). Types of HHSW most common are electronic waste (24.91%), electric lamps former (18.08%) and used batteries (16.71%). Those HHSW contain a variety of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, Li, Sb and Fe, which are generally toxic, carcinogenic and bioaccumulative that can be entered into the human body directly or through the food chain. Exposure to harmful and toxic materials can cause damage to various tissues/organs of the communities around the dumping, garbage worker, scavengers, collectors, users and recycler of HHSW. Therefore HHSW in Sleman Regency needs to be managed properly in accordance with the nature and characteristics.


Keywords


bahan berbahaya beracun; dampak; kesehatan lingkungan; sampah; environmental health; household hazardous waste; impacts



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18789

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