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KEARIFAN LOKAL PENGGUNAAN KAYU GELAM DALAM TANAH RAWA GAMBUT DI KALIMANTAN TENGAH (Local Wisdom of Utilization of Gelam Wood on Peatswamp Land of Central Kalimantan)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18729

Wahyu Supriyati(1*), Tibertius Agus Prayitno(2), Sumardi Sumardi(3), Sri Nugroho Marsoem(4)

(1) Jurusan Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Palangka Raya, Jalan Yos Sudarso, Kampus Unpar Tunjung Nyaho, Palangka Raya 73111
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Masyarakat di daerah rawa gambut memerlukan kayu sebagai cerucuk atau tiang pancang rumah. Kayu Gelam (Maleleuca sp) ditemukan melimpah di hutan rawa gambut di Kalimantan. Kayu Gelam termasuk kelas awet 3 yang berarti hanya dapat dipergunakan di bila berhubungan dengan tanah selama 3 tahun. Kenyataan yang ada kayu Gelam sebagai cerucuk /tiang pancang rumah dalam tanah rawa tetap kuat lebih selama lebih dari 30 tahun. Pemanfaatan kayu ini mendukung untuk konservasi hutan rawa gambut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melestarikan hutan di peatwamp melalui penghematan pemanfaatan kayu yaitu dengan mempelajari pengaruh lama penimbunan dan letak radial terhadap sifat fisika, mekanika dan kandungan silika kayu Gelam. Penelitian dilakukan pada kayu Gelam yang telah ditimbun dalam rawa gambut selama 10, 19, 31 dan 38 tahun. Sifat kayu yang dianalisis adalah sifat fisika mekanika mengikuti BS No 373. Uji silika dengan spektrometer. Analisis menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan faktorial. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa lama penimbunan meningkatkan berat jenis kayu Gelam secara signifikan. Semakin lama penimbunan, semakin tinggi berat jenis (0,54-0,75). Persamaan yang diperoleh Y=0,449+0,063x1+0,01x2 (Y=BJ kering tanur, x1= lama penimbunan, x2= letak radial). Pengaruh lama penimbunan pada kekerasan sejalan dengan BJ. Kadar silika kayu Gelam meningkat dengan semakin lama penimbunan. Lama penimbunan (10-38 tahun) meningkatkan BJ kering tanur 28,13 %, kekerasan 12,83%; kandungan silika 1,25%. Penggunaan kayu Gelam merupakan kearifan lokal yang terbukti melestarikan lingkungan karena menghemat pemanfaatan kayu yang dinyatakan dengan kualitas kayu Gelam yang relatif tidak menurun dalam penimbunan.

ABSTRACT

Local community on peatswamp area need woods as poles. Gelam (Maleleuca sp) wood is found abundantly in peatswamp forest area in Kalimantan. It is 3th durability class and expected to withstand up to three years of utilitation outdoor. However, gelam wood used for house poles in peatswamp could be still strong enough more than 30 years. Utilization this wood supports to conservation of peatswamp forest. The aim of this research is to study the effect of burying time and radial position to physical, mechanical properties and silica content of gelam The research was conducted by gelam wood which buried in peatswamp for several years namely 10, 19, 31 and 38 years. Wood properties that analyzed were physical and mechanical properties followed the British Standard No. 373. Silica testing by spectrometer. Analyze use factorial experimental of Completely Random Design. The result showed that wood specific gravity significantly increase with the lenght of burying time. The longer burying time, the higher wood specific gravity (0.54 to 0.75). Equation Y=0.449+0.063x1+0.01x2 (Y=oven dry SG, x1=burying time, x2=radial posision). The effect of burying time on hardness parallel with wood specific gravity. Burying time factor increase value of specific gravity 28.13 %, hardness 12.83%; silica content 1.25%. The use of gelam wood support to conserve the environment because it saves wood utilization expressed by gelam wood quality relatively undegradation in burial.


Keywords


kayu gelam; kearifan lokal; lama penimbunan; rawa gambut; sifat fisika-mekanika; silika; gelam wood; local wisdom; burying time; peatswamp; physical–mechanical properties; silica content



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18729

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