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USAHA DOMESTIFIKASI TUMBUHAN POKEM (Setaria italica L.) MASYARAKAT LOKAL PULAU NUMFOR, KABUPATEN BIAK NUMFOR SEBAGAI UPAYA MENUNJANG KETAHANAN PANGAN NASIONAL (The Effort of Domestication of Pokem {Setaria italica (L.) Beauv} by Local Communities)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18727

Suharno Suharno(1*), Supeni Sufaati(2), Verena Agustini(3), Rosye Hefmi Rechnelty Tanjung(4)

(1) Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Cenderawasih. Jl. Kamp Wolker, Waena, Jayapura, Papua 99582.
(2) Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Cenderawasih. Jl. Kamp Wolker, Waena, Jayapura, Papua 99582.
(3) Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Cenderawasih. Jl. Kamp Wolker, Waena, Jayapura, Papua 99582.
(4) Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Cenderawasih. Jl. Kamp Wolker, Waena, Jayapura, Papua 99582. Pusat Studi Lingkungan (PSL) Universitas Cenderawasih. Gd. Terpadu Lt.1. Jl. Kamp Wolker, Uncen Waena, Jayapura, Papua 99582.
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Daya dukung lingkungan (habitat) sangat berpengaruh terhadap pemenuhan kebutuhan hidup manusia. Usaha domestikasi tumbuhan pokem (Setaria italica L.) di Pulau Numfor Kabupaten Biak Numfor telah diusahakan sejak lama oleh masyarakat lokal. Tumbuhan yang termasuk kelompok rumput–rumputan (Familia: Poaceae) telah dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pangan lokal. Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan dan proses budidaya yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat lokal di pulau Numfor sebagai upaya dalam memenuhi bahan pangan lokal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa usaha budidaya pokem telah lama berlangsung secara turun–temurun sejak nenek moyang mereka tinggal di Pulau Numfor. Sistem budidaya yang mereka lakukan masih tergolong sederhana (konvensional). Masyarakat memanfaatkan lahan di sekitar kampung masing–masing karena mudah terjangkau. Sistem pertanian yang dilakukan masih dengan pola ladang berpindah. Kondisi sumber daya alam di wilayah pulau ini sangat terbatas. Kondisi tanah berkapur dan ketidaktersediaan tanaman sagu sebagaimana sumber bahan pangan utama orang Papua menyebabkan masyarakat berusaha menyediakan bahan pangan lokal, termasuk pokem. Nilai gizi biji tanaman ini cukup tinggi sehingga berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai salah satu upaya dalam mengatasi ketahanan pangan nasional.

ABSTRACT

Carrying capacity of the habitat plays important role in the fulfillment of human needs. The effort of pokem plant {Setaria italica (L.) Beauv} domestication in Numfor Island, Biak Numfor regency has been started by local communities since long time ago. The Plant grouping as grass (Family: Poaceae) have been used as local foodstuff. The aim of the study is to know the usage and cultivation of the plant performed by local communities in Numfor Island in strugling of fulfilling local foodstuff.  The result showed cultication of pokem has been done from one to other generation since their ancestors had arrived for the first time in the Numfor Island. Culture systems that they do are still relatively simple (conventional). Community has used of land around the village because it is easily affordable. Agricultural system is still done with the pattern of shifting cultivation. Condition of natural resources in the area of the island is very limited. The soils is calcareous and unavailability of sago palm as a major food source among Papuans enable the community to find  the alternative sources to provide local food, including pokem. The nutritional value of the seeds of this plant is quite high, so it would be possible to develope as one candidate to strengthen national food security.


Keywords


bahan pangan; budidaya; domestikasi; ketahanan pangan; pokem; Setaria italic; cultivation; domestication; food security; foodstuff



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18727

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