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KEBERADAAN FUNGI MIKORIZA ARBUSKULA DI KAWASAN TAILING TAMBANG EMAS TIMIKA SEBAGAI UPAYA REHABILITASI LAHAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN (The Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Tailings of Mining Gold Timika as An Attempt of Environmentally Friendly)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18556

Suharno Suharno(1*), Retno Peni Sancayaningsih(2), Endang Sutariningsih Soetarto(3), Rina Sri Kasiamdari(4)

(1) Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas MIPA Universitas Cenderawasih, Jl. Kamp. Wolker, Uncen–Waena Jayapura. Kode Pos 99351
(2) Laboratorium Ekologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
(3) Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
(4) Laboratorium Taksonomi Tumbuhan, Fakultas Biologi,Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Fungi mikoriza arbuskula (FMA) berperan penting dalam menunjang rehabilitasi lahan terdegradasi, termasuk lahan tailing. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keberadaan FMA lokal di lahan tailing tambang emas Timika – Papua, Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei dengan mengisolasi FMA dari rhizosfer beberapa jenis tumbuhan dominan di kawasan daerah pengendapan pasir sisa tambang. Pengecatan akar untuk melihat infeksi oleh FMA dilakukan dengan trypane blue, sedangkan perhitungan persen infeksinya dilakukan dengan metode slide. Keberadaan spora FMA dilakukan dengan metode wet sieving. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat FMA di lahan tailing di kawasan pengendapan Modified Ajkwa Deposition Area (ModADA). Persentase infeksi tertinggi (>50%) diketahui pada jenis tumbuhan Ficus adenosperma (86,7%), Brachiaria sp (73,3%), Amomum sp (66,7%), Bidens pilosa (63,3%), dan Musaenda frondosa (56,7%), sedangkan beberapa jenis lain mempunyai persen infeksi yang lebih rendah. Jumlah spora pada rhizosfer tumbuhan Brachiaria sp., F. adenosperma, dan Amomum sp., merupakan yang tertinggi dibanding dengan tumbuhan lain yakni 17, 13, dan 11 spora per 10 g tanah. 

ABSTRACT

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) has an important role in supporting the rehabilitation of degraded land such as tailings. The purpose of this research was to reveal the existence of indigenous AMF in tailing area of gold mine in Timika – Papua, Indonesia. The method was a survey by isolating some types of AMF from rhizosphere of dominant plant in the deposit area of mine sand residue. To define the AMF infected roots was conducted painting roots using trypane blue, where as the calculation of percent infection was carried out using slide methods. The presence of spores of AMF was done by wet sieving method. The results showed that AMF was found in tailings deposition on the Modified Ajkwa Deposition Area (ModADA). The highest percentage infections (>50%) was found under Ficus adenosperma (86.7%), Brachiaria sp (73,3%), Amomum sp (66,7%), Bidens pilosa (63,3%), and Musaenda frondosa (56,7%) rhizospheres, where as some other types of AMF have a lower infection percentage. The highest number of spores was found in rhizosphere of Brachiaria sp., F. adenosperma, and Amomum sp. which are 17, 13, and 11 spores per 10 g of soil respectively.


Keywords


fungi mikoriza arbuskula; pasir sisa tambang; rehabilitasi; tailing; tambang emas; arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi; gold mine; mine sand residue; rehabilitation; tailings



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18556

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