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EMISI CO2 TANAH AKIBAT ALIH FUNGSI LAHAN HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT DI KALIMANTAN BARAT (Soil Emissions of CO2 Due to Land Use Change of Peat Swamp Forest at West Kalimantan)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18553

Rossie Wiedya Nusantara(1*), Sudarmadji Sudarmadji(2), Tjut Sugandawaty Djohan(3), Eko Haryono(4)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Tanjungpura, Jalan A. Yani Pontianak, 78124
(2) Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta
(3) Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta
(4) Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis alih fungsi lahan gambut yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah pada hutan rawa gambut primer (HP), hutan gambut sekunder (HS), semak belukar (SB), kebun sawit (KS), dan kebun jagung (KJ) dan menganalisis pengaruh suhu dan jeluk muka air tanah (water-table depth) terhadap emisi CO2 tanah. Sampel dari tiap tipe lahan diambil sebanyak lima ulangan, total sampel 25. Saat pengukuran respirasi CO2 tanah gambut dilakukan pengukuran suhu tanah dan muka air tanah. Pengukuran di lapangan dilaksanakan dua kali yaitu awal musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa emisi CO2 tanah tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut adalah pada tipe lahan KJ (6,512 ton ha-1 th-1) dan SB (1,698  ton ha-1 th-1) serta pada tipe lahan KS (6,701 ton ha-1 th-1) dan SB (3,169 ton ha-1 th-1) berturut-turut. Suhu tanah gambut tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut berturut-turut adalah pada tipe lahan SB (27,78 oC) dan HP (22,78 oC), dan pada tipe lahan KS (29,08 oC) dan HP (26,56 oC) serta jeluk muka air tanah gambut berturut-turut pada tipe lahan KJ (56,2 cm) dan  SB (32,1 cm). Faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah gambut adalah suhu tanah, jeluk muka air tanah dan pengelolaan lahan yang menyebabkan perubahan sifat tanah gambut, seperti ketersediaan C-organik (jumlah dan kualitas bahan organik), pH tanah dan kematangan gambut.

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze peatland use change that caused changes soil emissions of CO2 at primary peat swamp forest (HP), secondary peat forest (HS), shrub (SB), oil palm plantations (KS) and corn field (KJ), and to analyze the influence of temperature and water-table depth to soil emission of CO2. Soil samples were taken from each five replications that accunt for 25 samples. Simultaneously with measurement of soil respiration measuremnts soil temperature. Field measurement is carried out twice at the beginning of dry season and the rainy season. The research shows that the highest and lowest soil emissions of CO2 at the  two measurements are at KJ (6.512 ton ha-1 yr-1) and SB (1.698  ton ha-1 yr-1), and at KS (6.701 ton ha-1 yr-1) and SB (3.169 ton ha-1 yr-1), respectively. The highest and lowest temperature of peat soil the  two measurements are at SB (27.78 oC) and HP (22.78 oC), and at KS (29.08 oC) dan HP (26.56 oC). Also the highest and lowest water-table depth of peat soil are at KJ (56.2 cm) and  SB (32.1 cm). The factors caused to differences of CO2 emissions are soil temperature, water-table depth and land cultivation which caused changing of peat-soil properties such as organic-C stock, soil pH and peat maturity.


Keywords


hutan rawa gambut; muka air tanah; pengolahan lahan. perubahan penggunaan lahan; suhu tanah; land cultivation; land use change; peat swamp forest; soil temperature; water-table depth



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18553

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