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PERAN MIKROBA STARTER DALAM DEKOMPOSISI KOTORAN TERNAK DAN PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PUPUK KANDANG (The Role of Microbial Starter in Animal Dung Decomposition and Manure Quality Improvement)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18542

Cahyono Agus(1*), Eny Faridah(2), Dewi Wulandari(3), Benito Heru Purwanto(4)

(1) KP4 UGM, Jl Kalitirto, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55573
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan UGM, Jalan Agro Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(3) SEAMEO BIOTROP, Jl Raya Tajur km 6, Bogor 16134
(4) Fakultas Pertanian UGM, Jalan Agro Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Pupuk organik perlu didekomposisi oleh mikroba dan memerlukan lingkungan yang sesuai agar cepat matang sempurna dan tidak memberikan dampak negatif pada aspek sosial, estetika maupun kesehatan pada makluk hidup dan lingkungan. Dekomposisi bahan pupuk organik dilakukan dengan menggunakan kotoran sapi, dengan 2 perlakuan mikroba (tanpa dan dengan mikroba starter) dan 3 variasi waktu, yaitu 0, 6 dan 24 jam setelah diberi mikroba starter. Analisis meliputi  uji fisik bahan pupuk yang meliputi pH, warna, aroma, lengas, dan DHL,  uji mikroba patogen (Eschericia. coli dan Salmonella) pada pupuk, pengujian kandungan hara pupuk total (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Cd, Cr, B, Fe, Cu, Zn)  dan Ntersedia (NH4 dan NO3),  serta analisis emisi gas amonia (NH3), oksigen (O2), karbon monoksida (CO), karbon dioksida (CO2), metana (CH4), NOx, NO, dan SO2. Mikroba starter mengandung mikrobia dan unsur hara yang sangat diperlukan dalam proses dekomposisi bahan organik. Pupuk kandang sapi setelah aplikasi  mikroba starter masih mengandung E. coli dan Salmonella sp. yang cenderung menurun seiring dengan lama waktu inkubasi. Terjadi dinamika kandungan unsur-unsur hara seperti P, K, Mg, Fe dan Cu serta logam berat Cr selama proses inkubasi baik pada pupuk kandang ayam maupun sapi. Dengan perlakuan mikroba starter, bagian senyawa sulfur dari bahan organik banyak yang terombak menjadi gas SO2 yang relatif tidak berbau, dan sebaliknya H2S serta senyawa reduktif sulfida lainnya menjadi terhambat pembentukannya. Perombakan dengan  mikroba starter sebaiknya diupayakan dalam suasana aerobik atau dengan suasana lembab tetapi tidak sampai anaerobik sehingga kehadiran senyawa H2S dan senyawa sulfur reduktif lainnya dapat dikurangi atau tidak terbentuk. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkkan pentingnya penggunaan mikroba starter optimal dan benar untuk memperbaiki kandungan nutrisi dan kualitas pupuk kandang.

 

ABSTRACT

Process of decomposition of organic fertilizer relies on the microbial decomposer population and requires a condusive environment. Those two factors influence on the  rate of organic material decomposition and limites the negative impact of this organic fertilizer on the aspect of social, ethic, and health of living organism. Cow dung was used as the material for decomposition of organic fertilizer. Two treatments were applied: with or without microbial decomposer (microbial starter) followed by incubation in the dark condition under room temperature. The cow dung was sampled in 0, 6, and 24 hours after microbial starter application.The cow dung pH, color, smell, water content, and electrical conductivity were analyzed.  Furthermore, microbial pathogen (Eschericia coli and Salmonella), cow dung total nutrition (C,N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Na,S,Cd,Cr,B,Fe,Cu,Zn), and available N (NH4 dan NO3) were also determined. Amonia emision (NH3), oxygen (O2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), NOx, NO, and SO2were analyzed as well. The result showed that microbial starter contained of important microbial for the process of cow dung decomposition. Application of microbial starter in cow dung reduced E. coli dan Salmonella sp. by the length of incubation time.Variation of nutrition, i.a. P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, and heavy metal, i.a. Cr was found during incubation, both in chicken and cow manure.Application of microbial starter reduced sulfur in organic matter to be SO2 without smell, and inhibited H2S production. Decomposition by application of microbial starter should be conducted in aerob condition to reduce H2S production.  This research implied that application of microbial starter is crucially important in improving manure nutrition and quality.


Keywords


dekomposisi; emisi gas; hara tanaman; mikroba starter; pupuk organik; dekomposisi; decomposition; gas emission; plant nutrition; microbial starter; organic fertilizer; decomposition



References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18542

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