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HUBUNGAN KEDEKATAN EKOLOGIS ANTARA FAUNA TANAH DENGAN KARAKTERISTIK TANAH GAMBUT YANG DIDRAINASE UNTUK HTI Acacia crassicarpa (Ecological Proximity Relationship Between Soil Fauna and The Characteristics of Drained Peatland for Industrial Plantation)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18541

Yunita Lisnawati(1*), Haryono Suprijo(2), Erny Poedjirahajoe(3), Musyafa Musyafa(4)

(1) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peningkatan Produktivitas Hutan, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5, Bogor 16610
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Pengelolaan lahan gambut untuk pengembangan HTI Acacia crassicarpa diawali dengan pembuatan saluran drainase dan pembukaan lahan (land clearing) yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penyiapan lahan untuk penanaman, sedangkan kegiatan pemeliharaan meliputi pemberantasan gulma dengan menggunakan herbisida dan pemupukan. Kegiatan pengelolaan dan pemeliharaan tentunya mempunyai dampak bagi kondisi ekologis lahan gambut. Perubahan kondisi ekologis terjadi karena perubahan lahan yang selanjutnya berpengaruh terhadap kelimpahan dan keragaman fauna tanah.Kelimpahan dan keragaman fauna tanah serta fungsi ekosistem menunjukkan hubungan yang sangat kompleks dan belum banyak diketahui dengan pasti. Kecenderungan fauna tanah untuk memilih suatu habitat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor lingkungan baik biotik maupun abiotik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kedekatan ekologis antara karakteristik tanah gambut yang didrainase untuk HTI A. crassicarpa dengan kelimpahan fauna tanahnya. Penelitian dilakukan di HTI lahan gambut  PT. Arara Abadi, Distrik Rasau Kuning, Kabupaten Siak, Riau.  Pengambilan sampel fauna tanah dengan metode pencuplikan contoh tanah yang berukuran 25 x 25 x 25 cm3, pemisahan fauna tanah dengan tanah dilakukan dengan menggunakan modifikasi corong barlese.  Parameter yang diamati adalah kelimpahan dan keragaman fauna tanah, kematangan gambut (C/N), kadar air gambut, dan kedalaman muka air tanah gambut. Untuk menilai kedekatan ekologis digunakan analisis hirarki.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan fauna tanah tertinggi terdapat pada tegakan A. crassicarpa umur 2 tahun. Keragaman jenis fauna tanah di lokasi penelitian termasuk melimpah sedang dengan nilai H’ 1,2. Formicidae berpotensi sebagai bioindikator kelembaban tanah gambut yang rendah yang dicirikan dengan kandungan kadar air yang rendah dan mempunyai tingkat kematangan gambut yang lebih tinggi. Entomobryidae berpotensi sebagai bioindikator kadar air yang tinggi dan mempunyai tingkat kematangan yang masih rendah.

 

ABSTRACT

Management of peatlands for HTI cultivation of Acacia crassicarpa begins by making drainage ditches and land clearing, followed by the preparation of land for planting. As for the maintenance activity, it includes weed control using herbicides and fertilizer. Management and maintenance activities certainly have implications for the ecological condition of peatlands, where the changes in ecological conditions due to land conversion will impact the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. Abundance and diversity of soil fauna and ecosystem function showed a very complex relationship not widely known this far.  Soil fauna tendency to select certain habitat is affected by several ecological factors, both biotic and abiotic. The study aims to assess the ecological proximity between the characteristics of peatland drained for HTI cultivation of A. crassicarpa and the abundance of soil fauna. The study was conducted in HTI peatlands of PT. Arara Abadi, Rasau Kuning District, Siak Regency, Riau. Soil fauna sampling was conducted by taking soil sample of 25 x 25 x 25 cm in size.  Separation of soil fauna from the soil was performed by a modification to a barlese funnel. Observed variables were the abundance and the diversity of soil fauna, peat maturity (C/N), water contentof peatand ground water table.  For observing ecological proximity, hierarchical analysis was used.  Result showed that the highest of soil fauna abundance was found in A. crassicarpa stand, 2 year’s old of age. The species diversity of soil fauna in research location included as medium abundant by H’ value 1,2. Formicidae was potential become a low level-humidity bioindicators of peatsoil, which described by those pattern : low water content and higher level of peat maturity. Entomobryidae was potential become a high water content  bioindicator and low level of peat maturity.


Keywords


fauna tanah; keragaman; kelimpahan; kedekatan ekologis; karakteristik gambut; soil fauna; diversity; abundance; ecological proximity; peat characteristic



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18541

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