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BIOAKUMULASI MERKURI DAN STRUKTUR HEPATOPANKREAS PADA TEREBRALIA SULCATA DAN NERITA ARGUS (MOLUSKA: GASTROPODA) DI KAWASAN BEKAS PENGGELONDONGAN EMAS, MUARA SUNGAI LAMPON, BANYUWANGI, JAWA TIMUR(Bioaccumulation of mercury and the hepatopancreas structure)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18509

Susintowati Susintowati(1*), Suwarno Hadisusanto(2)

(1) FKIP, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945, Jl. Laksda Adi Sucipto 26 Banyuwangi
(2) Laboratorium Ekologi Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Amalgamasi pada proses penggelondongan emas tradisional di muara sungai Lampon menggunakan Merkuri (Hg). Limbah dibuang langsung ke muara dan lingkungan sekitar. Walaupun aktivitas penggelondongan emas telah dihentikan, efek cemar Merkuri terhadap lingkungan termasuk biota terus berlangsung. Bioakumulasi Merkuri dapat ditelusuri menggunakan bioindikator anggota Gastropoda. Penelusuran bioakumulasi Merkuri menggunakan spesimen Terebralia sulcata yang hidup di hutan mangrove sekitar lokasi penggelondongan, dan Nerita argus yang hidup di muara pantai. Analisis Merkuri berdasar metode SNI 06-6992.2-2004 menggunakan perangkat Mercury Analyzer. Hepatopankreas sebagai organ detoksifikasi Merkuri digunakan sebagai parameter patologis. Hepatopankreas masing-masing spesimen dipreparasi dengan metode parafin, diwarnai dengan Hematoksilin Ehrlich’s-Eosin untuk pengamatan struktur mikroskopis. Bioakumulasi Merkuri dalam tubuh T. sulcata hingga 3,10 ppm, sedangkan dalam tubuh N. argus hingga 3,03 ppm. Tampak banyak vesikula residu diduga berisi inklusi pemadatan elektron dan metalotionin sebagai dampak detoksifikasi ion logam Merkuri dalam hepatopankreas. Tubulus hepatopankreas N. argus mengalami disintegrasi dan atropi cukup parah. Walaupun tambang emas di Lampon berskala kecil dan telah ditutup, efek patologis pencemaran Merkuri terhadap biota terutama Gastropoda sangat signifikan.

 

ABSTRACT

Traditional gold mining at Lampon Banyuwangi district was used mercury amalgamation. Tailings are discharged to waters, that caused mercury pollution. Mercury accumulation can be trace in sediments and benthic organisms such as Gastropods. Although the gold mining has been ceased, the impact of mercury pollution can be traced. The purposes of this study are to know the mercury accumulation in sediments, to know mercury bioaccumulation in the soft body of Gastropod bioindicators, to know mercury pathological effect in hepatopancreas. Terebralia sulcata and Nerita argus are Gastropods that as mercury bioindicators in this research. Study site administratively located at Banyuwangi district, East Java. Mercury analysis using SNI 06.6992.2-2004 methods that reads by Mercury Analyzer at LPPT UGM Yogyakarta. Hepatopancreas structure of Terebralia sulcata and Nerita argus were preparating with paraffin method and Hematoxilin Ehrlich’s-Eosin staining method. Accumulation of mercury in the tailings about 137,54 ppm, in site I sediment 0,45 ppm, in site II sediment 65,52 ppm, in site III sediment 1,17 ppm and in the tailing piles remaining after the mining ceased about 634,19 ppm. Bioaccumulation in Terebralia sulcata 3,10 ppm, Nerita argus about 3,03 ppm. The values of mercury accumulation are very high at all. Residual vesicles are found in hepatopancreas structure of Terebralia sulcata. The residual vesicles are the sign of mercury detoxification proccess. Vesicles are thought to contain inclutions of residual electrons and methallothionine compaction as a result of mercury ions detoxification by hepatopancreas cells. The hepatopancreatic tubulus of Nerita argus have disintegration and severe atrophy. The gold mining at Lampon is the small gold mining and has been ceased but the pathological effects of mercury pollution on aquatic organisms, especially Gastropods is very significant.   


Keywords


merkuri; tambang emas; bioakumulasi; hepatopankreas; struktur patologis; mercury; gold mines; bioaccumulation; hepatopancreas; pathological structure



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18509

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