Application of Nanocrystal Cellulose Based on Empty Palm Oil Fruit Bunch as Glucose Biosensing

https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.83422

Sunu Herwi Pranolo(1*), Joko Waluyo(2), Royhan Ikbar(3), Ramanda Ayu Damayanthy(4), Septy Lestary(5), Muhammad Luqman Qadarusman(6)

(1) Study Program of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126
(2) Study Program of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126
(3) Study Program of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126
(4) Study Program of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126
(5) Study Program of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126
(6) Study Program of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract. Biosensors for glucose sensing purposes are important since diabetes is a worldwide disease. One of the components of glucose biosensors is cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). CNCs are cellulose derivatives that could be extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). Indonesia has a high potential for OPEFB due to its abundance of resources. CNCs have poor conductivity as biosensors, so adding supporting electro-conductor components such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (G-CNT) is necessary. In this research, the amount of bleaching agent of H2O2 in CNCs extraction varies between 1.5% and 10%, and the portion of CNCs in the composite varies between 5%, 15%, and 30%. The purpose of this research is to create an optimum biosensor composite based on its CNCs quality through particle size analysis (PSA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests followed by cyclic voltammetry to determine biosensor’s impedance, limit of detection (LOD), and performance stability. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) tests are also conducted as process control. The research shows the success of delignification in CNC extraction based on FTIR. Crystallinity enhancement up to 51% as delignification using 1.5% and 10% H2O2 yields CNC with a crystallinity index of 87.1% and 94.0%. The average size of CNCs with delignification by 1.5% and 10% H2O2 are 640.0 nm and 579.8 nm, respectively. Results of testing the biosensor glucose G-CNT/CNC showed the best composition is 5% CNCs that using 10% H2O2 which the highest oxidation peak is 0.00205 A and reduction peak is -0.00223 A. Data of variance composition show the difference of the data is significant by using ANOVA SPSS Test. The biosensor has an accuracy of 83.2% in a test for diabetic urine.

Keywords


Biosensor, Empty Palm Fruit Bunch, Glucose, Nanocrystal Cellulose

Full Text:

PDF


References

Anjana, F., 2016. “Studi Pembuatan Nanokristal Selulosa Dari Selulosa Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS) Melalui Proses Sonikasi-Hidrothermal.” Thesis. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia.

Aprilia, N. A. S., and Arahman, N., 2020. “Properties of nanocrystalline cellulose from pineapple crown leaf waste.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 796(1), 012007.

Azrina, Z. A. Z., Beg, M. D. H., Rosli, M. Y., Ramli, R., Junadi, N., and Alam, A. K. M. M., 2017. “Spherical nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp via ultrasound assisted hydrolysis.” Carbohydrate Polymers 162, 115–120.

Börjesson, M., and Westman, G., 2015. Crystalline Nanocellulose — Preparation, Modification, and properties in Cellulose - Fundamental Aspects and Current Trends (Ed: Poletto, M. and Ornaghi, H. L.), Intechopen

Calvo, P., Remuñan-López, C., Vila-Jato, J. L., and Alonso, M. J., 1997. “Chitosan and chitosan/ethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymer nanoparticles as novel carriers for proteins and vaccines.” Pharmaceutical Research 14(10), 1431–1436.

Dewanti, D. P., 2018. “Cellulose potential of empty fruit bunches waste as the raw material of bioplastics environmentally friendly.” Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan 19(1), 81-87.

Esmaeili, C., Abdi, M. M., Mathew, A. P., Jonoobi, M., Oksman, K., and Rezayi, M., 2015). Synergy effect of nanocrystalline cellulose for the biosensing detection of glucose. Sensors 15(10), 24681–24697.

Ilharco, L. M., Garcia, A. R., Lopes da Silva, J., and Vieira Ferreira, L. F., 1997. “Infrared approach to the study of adsorption on cellulose: Influence of cellulose crystallinity on the adsorption of benzophenone.” Langmuir 13(15), 4126–4132.

Info, G., 2019. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene – Properties, Applications and Market. https://www.graphene-info.com/carbon-nanotubes

Isroi, I., Cifriadi, A., Panji, T., Wibowo, N., and Syamsu, K., 2017. “Bioplastic production from cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunch.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 65, 12011.

Junaidi, M., and Susanti, D., 2014. “Pengaruh variasi waktu ultrasonikasi dan waktu tahan hydrothermal terhadap struktur dan konduktivitas listrik material graphene.” Jurnal Teknik ITS, 3(1), F13–F18.

Keenan, C. W., Kleinfelter, D. C., Wood, J. H., and Pudjaatmaka, A. H., 1980. “Ilmu Kimia untuk Universitas. Penerbit Erlangga, Jakarta.

Lamaming, J., Hashim, R., Peng, L. C., and Sulaiman, O., 2016. “Properties of cellulose nanocrystals from oil palm trunk isolated by total chlorine free method. Carbohydrate Polymers 156, 409-416.

Lin, N., and Dufresne, A., 2014. “Nanocellulose in biomedicine: Current status and future prospect.” European Polymer Journal 59, 302–325.

Mandiri, P., 2012. “Manual Pelatihan Teknologi Energi Terbarukan. Jakarta: DANIDA.

Mani, V., Devadas, B., and Chen, S.-M., 2013. “Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase at electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid material modified electrode for glucose biosensor. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 41, 309–315.

Nisak, A., 2018. “Optimasi konsentrasi nanokristalin selulosa dari ampas tebu (Sugarcane officinarum) sebagai bahan alternatif pembuatan kapsul bebas gelatin. Thesis. Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim.

Pratiwi, E., 2018. “Modifikasi screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) dengan polipirol-SiO2 untuk penentuan fenol. Thesis. Universitas Brawijaya. Indonesia

Ren, X., Chen, D., Meng, X., Tang, F., Du, A., and Zhang, L., 2009. “Amperometric glucose biosensor based on a gold nanorods/cellulose acetate composite film as immobilization matrix. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 72(2), 188–192.

Riama, G., Veranika, A., and Prasetyowati, P., 2011. “Pengaruh H2O2, konsentrasi naoh dan waktu terhadap derajat putih pulp dari mahkota nanas.” Jurnal Teknik Kimia 18(3), 25-29.

Saleh, A., Pakpahan, M. M. D., and Angelina, N., 2009. “Pengaruh konsentrasi pelarut, temperatur dan waktu pemasakan pada pembuatan pulp dari sabut kelapa muda.” Jurnal Teknik Kimia 16(3), 35-44.

Segal, L., Creely, J. J., Martin Jr, A. E., and Conrad, C. M., 1959. “An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer.” Textile Research Journal 29(10), 786–794.

Suriyatem, R., Noikang, N., Kankam, T., Jantanasakulwong, K., Leksawasdi, N., Phimolsiripol, Y., Insomphun, C., Seesuriyachan, P., Chaiyaso, T., and Jantrawut, P., 2020. “Physical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose from palm bunch and bagasse agricultural wastes: Effect of delignification with hydrogen peroxide.” Polymers 12(7), 1505.

You, X., and Pak, J. J., 2014. “Graphene-based field effect transistor enzymatic glucose biosensor using silk protein for enzyme immobilization and device substrate.” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 202, 1357–1365.

Zianor Azrina, Z. A., Beg, M. D. H., Rosli, M. Y., Ramli, R., Junadi, N., and Alam, A. K. M. M., 2017. “Spherical nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp via ultrasound assisted hydrolysis.” Carbohydrate Polymers 162, 115–120.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.83422

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 383 | views : 94

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering  (print ISSN 1655-4418; online ISSN 2655-5409) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada.