Hydrogel Preparation from Shrimp Shell-Based Chitosan: The Degree of Crosslinking and Swelling Study

https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.73716

Dhena Ria Barleany(1*), Jayanudin Jayanudin(2), Nasihin Nasihin(3), Mela Widiawati(4), Meri Yulvianti(5), Denni Kartika Sari(6), Akbar Gunawan(7)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jln. Jend. Sudirman Km. 03, Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jln. Jend. Sudirman Km. 03, Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jln. Jend. Sudirman Km. 03, Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jln. Jend. Sudirman Km. 03, Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jln. Jend. Sudirman Km. 03, Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
(6) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jln. Jend. Sudirman Km. 03, Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
(7) Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jln. Jend. Sudirman Km. 03, Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Chitosan is a natural polymer derived from different starting materials such as fish scales, crab and shrimp shells. Due to the advantages like biocompatibility and biodegradability, chitosan has been widely used in hydrogel development. This current study aims to make chitosan from shrimp shells, synthesize hydrogel from chitosan, and observe the effect of various chitosan preparation treatments on the properties of the hydrogel. The preparation of chitosan was carried out through demineralization, deproteinization, and deacetylation process. HCl concentration during demineralization and NaOH concentration during deproteinization were varied (1; 1,5; 2) M and (1; 1,5; 2) M, respectively. Chitin deacetylation was conducted using 60% (w/v) of NaOH at the temperature of 90oC for 120 min, and chitosan was resulted. Chitosan based hydrogel was then synthesized with the addition of alginate and glutaraldehyde. The effect of HCl and NaOH concentrations during demineralization and deproteinization on the deacetylation degree of chitosan was observed. The effect of deacetylation degree of chitosan on the degree of crosslinking and swelling property of the hydrogel were also evaluated. Chitosan resulted from this study has the optimum degree of deacetylation at 57.28 %, resulting from demineralization by using HCl 2M and deproteinization with NaOH2 M. Higher deacetilation degree of chitosan causing the increase of the degree of cross-linking and decrease of the swelling capacity of the hydrogel. The highest degree of cross-linking is 78.85 %, and the swelling capacity is 47 %.


Keywords


Alginate; Chitosan; Glutaraldehyde; Hydrogel; Swelling; Shrimp

Full Text:

PDF


References

Al Hoqani, H. A. S., Al-Shaqsi, N., Hossain, M. A., Al Sibani, M. A., 2020. “Isolation and optimization of the method for industrial production of chitin and chitosan from Omani shrimp shell." Carbohydrate Research, 492, 108001.

Al Shaqsi, N. H. K., Al Hoqani, H. A. S., Hossain, M. A., Al Sibani, M. A., 2020. “Optimization of the demineralization process for the extraction of chitin from Omani Portunidae segnis." Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 23, 100779.

Atangana, E., Chiwese, T.T., Oberholster, P.J., Deysel, L-M., 2020. Evaluation of the absorbance capacity of elements in meat effluent, and their mathematical models by using shrimp chitosan cross-linked glutaraldehyde." Alexandria Engineering Journal, 59, 2567-2574.

Bagher, Z., Ehterami, A., Safdel, M. H., Khastar, H., Semiari, H., Asefnejad, A., Davachi, S. M., Mirzaii, M., Salehi, M., 2020. “Wound healing with alginate/chitosan hydrogel containing hesperidin in rat model." Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 55, 101379.

Bakshi, P. S., Selvakumara, D., Kadirvelub, K., Kumara, N. S., 2020. “Chitosan as an environmental friendly biomaterial-A review on recent modifications and applications." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 150, 1072-1083.

Balitaan, J. N. I., Yeh, J-M., Santiago, K. S., 2020. “Marine waste to a functional biomaterial: Green facile synthesis of modified-β-chitin from Uroteuthis duvauceli pens (gladius)." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 154, 1565-1575.

Berger, L. R. R., de Araújo, M. B., da Costa, D. P., de Lima, M. A. B., de Almeida, D. W. L., de Medeiros, E. V., 2020. “Agroindustrial waste as ecofriendly and low-cost alternative to production of chitosan from Mucorales fungi and antagonist effect against Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacco and Scytalidium lignicola Pesante." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 161, 101-108.

Bertoni, F. A., González, J. C., García, S. I., Sala, L. F., Bellú, S. E., 2018. “Application of chitosan in removal of molybdate ions from contaminated water and groundwater." Carbohydrate Polymers, 180, 55-62.

Dmitriev, I., Kuryndin, I., Bobrova, N., Smirnov, M., 2015. “Swelling behavior and network characterization of hydrogels from linear polyacrylamide crosslinked with glutaraldehyde." Materials Today Communications, 4, 93-100.

El Knidri, H., Belaabed, R., Addaou, A., Laajeb, A., Lahsini, A., 2018. “Extraction, chemical modification and characterization of chitin and chitosan." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 120 (A), 1181-1189.

Erizal, 2012. “Synthesis of Poly(Acrylamide-co-Acrylic Acid)-Starch Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels by Gamma Radiation: Study its Swelling Behavior." Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 12( 2), 113-118.

Galiano, F., Briceño, K., Marino, T., Molino, A., Christensen, K. V., Vigoli, A., 2018. “Advances in biopolymer-based membrane preparation and applications." Journal of Membrane Science, 564, 562-586.

Hahn, T., Roth, A., Ji, R., Schmitt, E., Zibek, S., 2020. “Chitosan production with larval exoskeletons derived from the insect protein production." Journal of Biotechnology, 310, 62-67.

Jayanudin, Lestari, R.S.D., barleany, D.R., Pitaloka, A.B., Yulvianti, M., Prasetyo, D., Anggoro, D.V., Ruhiatna, A., 2022. “Chitosan-Graft-Poly(acrylic acid) Superabsorbent’s Water Holding in Sandy Soils and Its Application in Agriculture." Polymers, 14, 5175.

Kaya, İ., Ayten, B., Yaşar, A. Ö., 2020. “Synthesis and electrochemical properties of chitosan-polyphenol composites." Reactive and Functional Polymers, 154, 104667.

Khalesi, H., Lu, W., Nishinari, K., Fang, Y., 2020. “New insights into food hydrogels with reinforced mechanical properties: A review on innovative strategies." Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 285, 102278.

Khapre, M.A., Pandey, S., Jugade, R.M., 2021. “Glutaraldehyde-cross-linked chitosan–alginate composite for organic dyes removal from aqueous solutions." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 190, 862-875.

Kumari, S., Annamareddy, S. H. K., Abanti, S., Rath, P. K., 2017. “Characterization of CNL like protein fragment (CNL-LPF) from mature Lageneria siceraria seeds." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 104, 1697–1705.

Kundu, C. K., Wang, X., Song, L., Hu, Y., 2020. “Chitosan-based flame retardant coatings for polyamide 66 textiles: One-pot deposition versus layer-by-layer assembly." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 143, 1-10.

Leceta, I., Etxabide, A., Cabezudo, S., de la Caba, K., Guerrero, P., 2014. “Bio-based films prepared with by-products and wastes: environmental assessment." Journal of Cleaner Production, 64, 218-227.

Melendres, A. V. and Carrillo, L. A., 2019. “Surface Treatment of Superabsorbent Polymer with Corn Starch for Improved Properties." ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering, 19 (1), 66-73.

Mohan, K., Ravichandran, S., Muralisankar, T., Uthayakumar, V., Chandirasekar, R., Rajeevgandhi, C., Rajan, D. K., Seedevi, P., 2019. “Extraction and characterization of chitin from sea snail Conus inscriptus (Reeve, 1843)." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 126, 555-560.

Muxika, A., Etxabide, A., Uranga, J., Guerrero, P., de la Caba, K., 2017. “Chitosan as a bioactive polymer: Processing, properties and applications." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 105, 1358-1368.

Naghizadeh, Z., Karkhaneh, A., Khojasteh, A., 2018. “Self-crosslinking effect of chitosan and gelatin on alginate based hydrogels: Injectable in situ forming scaffolds." Materials Science and Engineering: C, 89, 256-264.

Negm, N. A., Hefni, H. H. H., Abd-Elaal, A. A., Badr, E. A., Abou Kana, M. T. H., 2020. “Advancement on modification of chitosan biopolymer and its potential applications." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 152, 681-702.

Onat, B., Ulusan, S., Banerjee, S., Erel-Goktepe, I., 2019. “Multifunctional layer-by-layer modified chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels." European Polymer Journal, 112, 73-86.

Pakdel, P.M., and Peighambardoust, S. J., 2018. “Review on recent progress in chitosan-based hydrogels for wastewater treatment application." Carbohydrate Polymers, 201, 264-279.

Rahmayetty, Sukirno, Prasetya, B., Gozan, M., 2017. “Synthesis and characterization of L-lactide and polylactic acid (PLA) from L-lactic acid for biomedical applications." AIP Conference Proceedings, 1817, 020009.

Rather, R.A., Bhat, M.A., Shalla, A.H., 2022. “An insight into synthetic and physiological aspects of superabsorbent hydrogels based on carbohydrate type polymers for various applications: A review." Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications, 3, 100202.

Sathiyabama, M., Bernstein, N., Anusuya, S., 2016. “Chitosan elicitation for increased curcumin production and stimulation of defence response in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)." Industrial Crops and Products, 89, 87-94.

Seedao, C., Rachphirom, T., Phiromchoei, M., Jangiam, W., 2018. “Anionic Dye Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions by Chitosan Coated Luffa Fibers." ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering, 18(2), 31-40.

Sharma, G., Kumar, A., Devi, K. A., Prajapati, D., Bhagat, D., Pal, A., Raliya, R., Biswas, P., Saharan, V., 2020. “Chitosan nanofertilizer to foster source activity in maize." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 145, 226-234.

Sivakanthan, S., Rajendran, S., Gamage, A., Madhujith, T., Mani, S., 2020. “Antioxidant and antimicrobial applications of biopolymers: A review." Food Research International, 136, 109327.

Sivashankari, P.R., and Prabaharan, M., 2017. “Deacetylation modification Techniques of Chitin and Chitosan. Chitosan Based Biomaterials: Fundamentals. vol. 1, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge. 117-133.

Tolesa, L. D., Gupta, B. S., Lee, M-J., 2019. “Chitin and chitosan production from shrimp shells using ammonium-based ionic liquids." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 130, 818–826.

Trung, T. S., Tram, L. H., Tan, N. V., Hoa, N. V., Minh, N. C., Loc, P. T., Stevens, W. F., 2020. “Improved method for production of chitin and chitosan from shrimp shells." Carbohydrate Research 489, 107913.

Yang, J., Han, S., Zheng, H., Dong, H., Liu, J., 2015. “Preparation and application of micro/nanoparticles based on natural polysaccharides." Carbohydrate Polymers, 123, 53-66.

Younes, I., Hajji, S., Frachet, V. Rinaudo, M., Jellouli, K., Nasri, M., 2014. “Chitin extraction from shrimp shell using enzymatic treatment. Antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of chitosan." International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 69, 489-498.

Yu, S., Zhang, X., Tan, G., Tian, L., Liu, D., Liu, Y., Yang, X., Pan, W., 2017. “A novel pH-induced thermosensitive hydrogel composed of carboxymethyl chitosan and poloxamer cross-linked by glutaraldehyde for ophthalmic drug delivery." Carbohydrate Polymers, 155, 208–217.

Zhan, Y., Fu, W., Xing, Y., Ma, X., Chen, C., 2022. “Advances in versatile anti-swelling polymer hydrogels." Materials Science and Engineering: C, 127, 112208.

Zhang, X., Liu, B., Feng, W., Wei, W., Shen, W., Fang, S., Fan, K., 2022. “Fully physically crosslinked POSS-based hydrogel with low swelling, high stretchable, self-healing, and conductive properties for human motion sensing." Colloids and Surfaces A: Physichochemical and Engineering Aspects, 653, 130016.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.73716

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 815 | views : 937

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering  (print ISSN 1655-4418; online ISSN 2655-5409) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada.