Performance Evaluation of Green Cushion Gum Composite Formulated Based on Hybrid Filler and Curing System

Santi Puspitasari(1*), Adi Cifriadi(2), Arief Ramadhan(3), Mochamad Chalid(4)

(1) Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, Jalan Salak No 1 Bogor 16128 West Java, Indonesia
(2) Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, Jalan Salak No 1 Bogor 16128 West Java, Indonesia
(3) Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, Jalan Salak No 1 Bogor 16128 West Java, Indonesia
(4) Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16424 West Java, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Cushion gum is a type of rubber composite material used as adhesive in the manufacture of retread tires. Therefore, cushion gum should have good processability and mechanical characteristics, particularly tensile property, and adhesion strength. The effect of hybrid filler and curing system on the performance of green cushion gum composite was investigated to determine the appropriate green cushion gum formula designed at a laboratory scale. The content of CB N330/lignin in hybrid filler was arranged at 40/10 phr and 50/10 phr. Meanwhile, the curing system was performed semi-efficient (CBS/S 1.6/1.6 phr) and conventional (CBS/S 1.6/2.2 phr). Green cushion gum composite was also formulated using pine tar oil as a bio plasticizer. Referred to the curing characteristic and mechanical property test result, it showed that green cushion gum composite formula coded by RF1 which composed of CB N330/lignin as 50/10 phr and applied conventional curing system which ratio of CBS/S as 1.6/2.2 phr was regarded as the acceptable combination in designing green cushion gum composite formula. Higher CB N330 loading in hybrid filler composition and conventional curing system attributed to the relatively high crosslink density indicated by MH-ML value. Consequently, green cushion gum composite was obtained using the RF1 formula that has a better optimum curing time accompanied by good tensile property and adhesion strength. The composite was also comparable to conventional commercial cushion gum.


Composite, Curing system, Cushion gum, Hybrid filler, Natural rubber

Full Text:



Abdul-Kader, W., and Haque, M. S. (2011). “Sustainable tyre remanufacturing: an agent-based simulation modeling approach,” Int. J. Sustain. Eng., 4(4), 330-347.

Aini, N. A. M., Othman, N., Hussin, M. H., Sahakaro, K., and Hayeemasae, N. (2019). “Hydroxymethylation-modified lignin and its effectiveness as a filler in rubber composite,” Proc., 7, 315.

Azura, A. R., Lee, X. M., and Misman, M. A. (2014). “Effect of natural and synthetic tackifier on viscosities, adhesion properties and thermal stability of SNR and DPNR solution adhesives,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 28(7), 637-652.

Bahl, K., Miyoshi, T., and Jana, S. C. (2014). “Hybrid fillers of lignin and carbon black for lowering of viscoelastic loss in rubber compound,” Polym., 55, 3825 – 3835.

Banerjee, B. (2015). Tyre Retreading. Manufacturing technology for tyre retreading, Smithers Rapra, Shropshire, England

Barnes, T. M., and Greive, K. A. (2017). “Topical pine tar: History, properties and use as a treatment for common skin conditions,” Aust. J. Dermatol., 58(2), 80-85.

Bhowmick, A. K., Loha, P., and Chakravarty, S. N. (1989). “Studies on adhesion between natural rubber and polybutadiene rubber.” Intl. J. Adhesion. Adhesives., 9(2), 95-102.

Candau, N., Laghmach, R., Chazeau, L., Chenal, J.M., Gauthier, C., Biben, T., and Munch, E. (2011). “Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber and crosslink densities heterogeneities.” Macromol., 47, 5815-5824.

Formela, K., Wasowicz, D., Formela, M., Hejna, A., and Haponiuk, J. (2015). “Curing characteristic, mechanical and thermal properties of reclaimed ground tire rubber cured with various vulcanizing systems,” Iran Polym J., 24, 289-297.

Hasan, A., Aznury, M., Purnamasari, I., Manawan, M., and Liza, C. (2020). “Curing characteristic and physical properties of natural rubber composite using modified clay filler,” Int. J. Technol., 11(4), 830-841.

Hiranobe, C. T., Ribeiro, G. D., Torres, G. B., Reis, E. A. P., Cabrera, F. C., and Job, A. E. (2021). “Crosslinked density determination of natural rubber compounds by different analytical techniques,” Mater. Res., 24, e20210041.

Huneau, B. (2011). “Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber: a review of X-ray diffraction investigations.” Rubber. Chem. Technol., 84(3), 425-452.

Job, L., and Joseph, R. (1995). “Studies on the adhesives for rubber to rubber bonding.” J. Adhesion Sci Technol., 9(11), 1427-1434.

Kruzelak, J., Sykora, R., and Hudec, I. (2017). “Sulfur and peroxide curing of rubber compounds based on NR and NBR. Part I: crosslinking and physical-mechanical properties,” Elas. and Plast., (1-2), 27-33.

Liu, J., Liu, H., Deng, L., Liao, B., and Guo, Q. (2013). “Improving aging resistance and mechanical properties of waterborne polyurethans modified by lignin amines.” J. App. Polym. Sci., 130, 1736-1742.

Morawetz, H. (2000). “History of rubber research.” Rubb. Chem. Tech., 73(3), 405-426.

Nie, Y., Gu, Z., Wei, Y., Hao, T., and Zhou, Z. (2017). “Features of strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber revealed by experiments and simulations.” Polym. J., 1-9.

Niza, S., Santos, E., Costa, L., Ribeiro, P., and Ferrao, P. (2014). “Extended producer responsibility policy in Portugal: a strategy towards improving waste management performance,” J. Clean. Prod., 64(1), 277-287.

Petrovic, Z. S., Ionescu, M., Millic, J., and Halladay, J. R. (2013). “Soybean oil plasticizer as replacement of petroleum oil in rubber.” Rubber. Chem. Technol., 86(2), 233-249.

Qi, X. J., and Wang, Q. (2011, May 20-22). “Study on the prediction technology of the retreaded tire residual life,” International Conference on Materials for Renewable Energy & Environment, Shanghai, China.

Rattanasom, N., Poonsuk, A., and Makmoon, T. (2005). “Effect of curing system on the mechanical properties and heat aging resistance of natural rubber/tire tread reclaimed rubber blends.” Polym. Test., 24, 728-732.

Sasikumar, P., Kannan, G., and Haq, A. N. (2010). “A multi-echelon reverse logistics network design for product recovery – a case of truck tire remanufacturing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 49, 1223-1234.

Sheikh, S. H., Yin, X., Ansarifar, A., and Yendall, K. (2017). “The potential of kaolin as a reinforcing filler for rubber composites with new sulphur cure system,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos, 36(16), 1-14.

Simic, V., and Dabic-Ostojic, S. (2017). “Interval parameter chance constrained programming model for uncertainty based decision making in tire retreading industry,” J. Clean. Prod., 167, 1490-1498.

Thomas, B. S., and Gupta, R. C. (2016). “Properties of high strength concrete containing scarp tire rubber,” J. Clean. Prod., 113(1), 86-92.

Thuraisingam, J., Mishra, P., Gupta, A., Soubam, T., and Piah, B. M. (2019). “Novel natural rubber latex/lignin-based bio-adhesive: synthesis and its application on medium density fiber-board,” Iran. Polym. J., 28, 283-290.

Xu, H., Fan, T., Wu, W., Huang, D., Wang, D., Wang, Z., and Zhang, L. (2020). “Plasticization effect of bio-based plasticizer from soybean oil for tire tread rubber,” Polym., 12(3), 623.

Zhao, F., Bi, W., and Zhao, S. (2011). “Influence of crosslink density on mechanical properties of natural rubber vulcanizates.” J. Macromol. Sci. Part B: Physc., 50, 1460-1469


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 439 | views : 175


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering  (print ISSN 1655-4418; online ISSN 2655-5409) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada.