Study on the Removal of Odorous Gases from Composting Process using Local Bio-Media of Vietnam

Nguyen Nhat Huy(1*), Nguyen Thi Thuy(2), Lam Pham Thanh Hien(3), Nguyen Thi Thanh Hang(4), Vuong Bao Khuong(5), Le Thi Kim Phung(6), Nguyen Thi Le Lien(7)

(1) Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT)
(2) Department of Environmental Engineering, International University
(3) Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City
(4) Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT)
(5) Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT)
(6) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT)
(7) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT)
(*) Corresponding Author


Odor pollution is an increasing problem in Vietnam as a tropical country during the urbanization and industrialization. The odor from sewage systems, farms of poultry, pig, and beef, food processing companies, composting factory, and landfills is a severe problem in many nearby residential areas. In this study, two lab-scale biofiltration systems where pristine local bio-media and cultured bio-media with specially formulated microorganisms were employed in biofilters and bio-trickling filter for controls of odor (i.e., hydrogen sulfide and ammonia) from composting process were fabricated and operated. The odorous gas flow was created by composting solid waste collected from an agricultural market (i.e., mainly vegetable), containing low concentrations of 1.32 ± 0.32 mgNH3 m-3 and 5.20 ± 0.28 mgH2S m-3 under stable condition. For the biofilter model, commercial compost and cow manure were used as substrates and packed into the models. For the bio-trickling filter model, K3 bio-media with biofilm developed by contacting activated sludge was used as packing material. The results showed that adding specially formulated microorganisms could reduce adaption time and lead to slightly better odor control performance. Among the substrates, cow manure provided the highest odorous gas removal efficiency of ≥ 90% during the stable phase with the elimination capacity of 0.0492 gNH3 m-3 h-1 and 0.225 gH2S m-3 h-1. The study results show a high potential of cow manure biofilter for control of H2S and NH3 gases in the practical application under Vietnam’s condition.


Ammonia; Bio-trickling filter; Biofilter; Compost; Cow manure; Hydrogen sulfide

Full Text:



  1. Alinezhad, E., Haghighi, M., Rahmani, F., Keshizadeh, H., Abdi, M., and Naddafi, K. (2019). "Technical and economic investigation of chemical scrubber and bio-filtration in removal of H2S and NH3 from wastewater treatment plant," J. Environ. Manage., 241, 32-43.
  2. Barbusiński, K., and Kalemba, J. (2016). "Use of biological methods for removal of H2S from biogas in wastewater treatment plants–a review," Architecture Civil Engineering Environment, 9(1), 103-112.
  3. Barbusinski, K., Kalemba, K., Kasperczyk, D., Urbaniec, K., and Kozik, V. (2017). "Biological methods for odor treatment – A review," J. Cleaner Prod., 152, 223-241.
  4. Burgess, J. E., Parsons, S. A., and Stuetz, R. M. (2001). "Developments in odour control and waste gas treatment biotechnology: a review," Biotechnol. Adv., 19(1), 35-63.
  5. Conti, C., Guarino, M., and Bacenetti, J. (2020). "Measurements techniques and models to assess odor annoyance: A review," Environ. Int., 134, 105261.
  6. Cox, H. H. J., and Deshusses, M. A. (2002). "Co-treatment of H2S and toluene in a biotrickling filter," Chem. Eng. J., 87(1), 101-110.
  7. Delhoménie, M.-C., and Heitz, M. (2005). "Biofiltration of air: a review," Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 25(1-2), 53-72.
  8. Dumont, E., Andrès, Y., Le Cloirec, P., and Gaudin, F. (2008). "Evaluation of a new packing material for H2S removed by biofiltration," Biochem. Eng. J., 42(2), 120-127.
  9. Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H. (2012). Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering, Dover.
  10. Gabriel, D., and Deshusses, M. A. (2003). "Performance of a full-scale biotrickling filter treating H2S at a gas contact time of 1.6 to 2.2 seconds," Environ. Prog., 22(2), 111-118.
  11. Groenestijn, J. W. v., and Kraakman, N. J. R. (2005). "Recent developments in biological waste gas purification in Europe," Chem. Eng. J., 113(2–3), 85-91.
  12. Guieysse, B., Hort, C., Platel, V., Munoz, R., Ondarts, M., and Revah, S. (2008). "Biological treatment of indoor air for VOC removal: Potential and challenges," Biotechnol. Adv., 26(5), 398-410.
  13. Hou, J., Li, M., Xia, T., Hao, Y., Ding, J., Liu, D., Xi, B., and Liu, H. (2016). "Simultaneous removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases using biofilter media from the biodehydration stage and curing stage of composting," Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 23(20), 20628-20636.
  14. Iranpour, R., Cox, H. H. J., Deshusses, M. A., and Schroeder, E. D. (2005). "Literature review of air pollution control biofilters and biotrickling filters for odor and volatile organic compound removal," Environ. Prog., 24(3), 254-267.
  15. Jiang, G., Melder, D., Keller, J., and Yuan, Z. (2017). "Odor emissions from domestic wastewater: A review," Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 47(17), 1581-1611.
  16. Jin, Y., Veiga, M. C., and Kennes, C. (2005). "Autotrophic deodorization of hydrogen sulfide in a biotrickling filter," J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 80(9), 998-1004.
  17. Kim, H., Kim, Y. J., Chung, J. S., and Xie, Q. (2002). "Long-Term Operation of a Biofilter for Simultaneous Removal of H2S and NH3," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 52(12), 1389-1398.
  18. Kumar, A., Dewulf, J., and Van Langenhove, H. (2008). "Membrane-based biological waste gas treatment," Chem. Eng. J., 136(2–3), 82-91.
  19. Martel, M. (2013). Simulation Study on Ammonia Removal in a Biotrickling Filter Using a Steady-state Model. Paper presented at the CSBE/SCGAB 2013 Annual Conference Canada.
  20. Mudliar, S., Giri, B., Padoley, K., Satpute, D., Dixit, R., Bhatt, P., Pandey, R., Juwarkar, A., and Vaidya, A. (2010). "Bioreactors for treatment of VOCs and odours – A review," J. Environ. Manage., 91(5), 1039-1054.
  21. Muñoz, R., Sivret, E. C., Parcsi, G., Lebrero, R., Wang, X., Suffet, I. H., and Stuetz, R. M. (2010). "Monitoring techniques for odour abatement assessment," Water Res., 44(18), 5129-5149.
  22. Muñoz, R., Villaverde, S., Guieysse, B., and Revah, S. (2007). "Two-phase partitioning bioreactors for treatment of volatile organic compounds," Biotechnol. Adv., 25(4), 410-422.
  23. Pu, S., Liu, Z., Yang, F., Long, D., Liu, W., Wang, H., Huang, K., and Huang, X. (2018). "Comparative study on the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using three different packings," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 68(9), 900-908.
  24. Ramírez, M., Gómez, J. M., Aroca, G., and Cantero, D. (2009). "Removal of ammonia by immobilized Nitrosomonas europaea in a biotrickling filter packed with polyurethane foam," Chemosphere, 74(10), 1385-1390.
  25. Ren, B., Zhao, Y., Lyczko, N., and Nzihou, A. (2019). "Current Status and Outlook of Odor Removal Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Plant," Waste Biomass Valorization, 10(6), 1443-1458.
  26. Rincón, C. A., De Guardia, A., Couvert, A., Le Roux, S., Soutrel, I., Daumoin, M., and Benoist, J. C. (2019). "Chemical and odor characterization of gas emissions released during composting of solid wastes and digestates," J. Environ. Manage., 233, 39-53.
  27. Schlegelmilch, M., Streese, J., and Stegmann, R. (2005). "Odour management and treatment technologies: An overview," Waste Manage., 25(9), 928-939.
  28. Vallero, D. (2014). Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Elsevier Science.
  29. Vikrant, K., Kailasa, S. K., Tsang, D. C. W., Lee, S. S., Kumar, P., Giri, B. S., Singh, R. S., and Kim, K.-H. (2018). "Biofiltration of hydrogen sulfide: Trends and challenges," J. Cleaner Prod., 187, 131-147.
  30. Wang, L. K., Pereira, N. C., and Hung, Y. T. (2007). Advanced Air and Noise Pollution Control, Humana Press.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 138 | views : 132


  • There are currently no refbacks.