Fabrication of Cellulose Sponge: Effects of Drying Process and Cellulose Nanofiber Deposition on the Physical Strength


Abdul Halim(1*), Yinchao Xu(2), Toshiharu Enomae(3)

(1) Department Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Institute of Technology & Science Bandung, Indonesia Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan
(2) Department of Light Chemistry Industry, School of Environmental and Natural Resources, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology
(3) Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
(*) Corresponding Author


Cellulose sponge was fabricated by regenerating cellulose from a xanthate solution. The solution, which contained sodium phosphate particles as a template to create sponge porosity, was dried at 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C for 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. Mass transfer during the initial and last stages of drying was controlled in terms of temperature and concentration differences, respectively. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the mass transfer coefficient were -51,841.947 kJ mol-1 and 7.26×109 m-2 h-1, respectively. Regenerated cellulose contained a crystalline type of cellulose II, and the crystallinity was independent of drying conditions. At a low drying temperature (T≤55 °C) and short drying period (t≤2h), the cellulose was unregenerated. At higher temperatures and longer drying periods, no relationship between temperature and physical strength was observed. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) was added to the xanthate solution at a ratio of 1:100 of CNF to linter cellulose for xanthation; however, this did not affect the physical strength of the cellulose sponge for both mechanically and chemically fabricated CNF.


Cellulose nanofiber; Cellulose sponge; Drying; Physical strength; Regenerated cellulose

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.51313

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