Enhanced Chlorella vulgaris Buitenzorg growth by Photon Flux Density Alteration in Serial Bubble Column Photobioreactors


Anondho Wijanarko(1*), Dianursanti Antonius Yudi Sendjaya(2), Misri Gozan(3), Roekmijati Widaningroem Soemantojo(4), Arief Budi Witarto(5), Kazuhiro Asami Kazuhisa Ohtaguchi(6)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia Kampus Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, INDONESIA
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia Kampus Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, INDONESIA
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia Kampus Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, INDONESIA
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia Kampus Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, INDONESIA
(5) Biotechnology Research Center, Indonesian Institute of Science, Jalan Raya Bogor KM 46, Bogor 16911, INDONESIA
(6) Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro ku, Tokyo 152, JAPAN
(*) Corresponding Author


Micro algae are photolitotrophs that perform oxygenic photosynthesis and capable of accumulating a large amount of CO2, using an inducible CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM). These characteristics make the micro algae potentially useful for removal and utilization of CO2 emitted from industrial plant. Generally, the usage of photosynthetic microorganism in CO2 fixation and biomass production for the economically viable commodities have been increased and significantly improved as a solution for this problem. Using these facts and previous research results using Anabaena cylindrica IAM M1 and Spirulina platensis IAM M 135, enhancement of CO2 fixation and biomass production by Chlorella vulgaris Buitenzorg with photon flux density alteration along with an increasing of culture biomass during the cellular growth period, was implemented in this research. The photon flux density used in this alteration was the maximum light for Chlorella’s maximum growth rate ( I mmax,opt ). The cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris Buitenzorg in the Benneck basal medium operating conditions: T, 29oC; P, 1.0 atm; UG, 2.4m/h; CO2, 10%; using Philip Halogen Lamp 20W/12V/50Hz as the light source and three bubble column photobioreactors arranged in series order with each having a volume of 0.200dm3. Results had shown that the photon flux density alteration as a whole could increase around 60% the biomass production of Chlorella vulgaris and around 7% the CO2 fixation ability, compared to constant photon flux density outcomes. This experiment also showed that the noncompetitive inhibition of [HCO3-] as carbon source substrate is affected significantly during the cultivation in both of alteration and continuous photon flux density.


Biomass, Chlorella vulgaris Buitenzorg, alteration, photobioreactor, seri


  1. Bailey, J.E. and Ollis, D.F. (1986), Biochemical Enginering Fundamental, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York Ch.7, 382-392.
  2. Falkowsky, P.G. and Owens, T.G. (1980), “Light- Shade Adaptation,” Plant Physiology, 66, 592-595.
  3. Hirata, S., Taya, M. and Tone, S. (1996).” Characterization of Chlorella cell cultures in batch and continuous operations under a photoautotrophic condition,” Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 29, 6, 953-959.
  4. Hirata, S., Taya, M. and Tone, S. (1998). “Continuous cultures of Spirulina platensis under photoautotrophic conditions with change in light intensity,” Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 31, 4, 636-639.
  5. Kaplan A., Badger, M.R. and Berry, J.A. (1980), “Photosynthesis and the intracellular inorganic carbon pool in the blue green alga Anabaena variabilis: Response to external CO2 concentration,” Planta, 149, 219- 226.
  6. Monod, J. (1942), Recherche sur la croissance des cultures bacteriennes. Herman and Cie, Paris, 211-232.
  7. Ogbonna, J. C., Yada, H. and Tanaka, H. (1995). “Kinetics study on light-limited batch cultivation of photosynthetic cells”, Journal Fermentation and Bioengineering, 80, 7, 259-264.
  8. Ohtaguchi, K. (2000). “ Soft energy path synthesis from carbon dioxide to biofuel ethanol through cyanobacterial biotechnology,” Technology, 7S, 175-188. 
  9. Ohtaguchi, K. andWijanarko, A. (2002). “Elevation of the efficiency of cyanobacterial carbon dioxide removal by monoethanolamine solution,” Technology, 8, 267-286.
  10. Oquist, G., Anderson, J.M., McCaffery, S. and Chow, W. S. (1992). “Mechanistic difference in photoinhibition of sun and shade plants,” Planta, 188, 422-431.
  11. Schugerl, K. and Bellgardt, K.H. eds. (2000). Bioreaction Engineering Modeling and Control, Springer, Berlin. Widjaja, H. (2002). Penyimpanan karbon dalam tanah, alternatif carbon sink dari pertanian konservasi, Diktat Pengantar Falsafah Sains, Bogor Institute of Agriculture Press, 1-14.
  12. Wijanarko, A. and Othaguchi, K. (2003). “Alteration of light illumination during microbial growth: An enhancement effort of biomass production and carbon dioxide fixation of psychrophylic cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica IAM MI,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 134, 124.
  13. Wijanarko, A. and Ohtaguchi, K. (2004). “Carbon dioxide removal and biomass production by Anabaena cylindrica IAM M1 using reactor in series”, Study on Surface Science and Catalysis, 153, 461-468.
  14. Wijanarko, A., Asami, K. and Ohtaguchi, K. (2004). “The kinetics of growth and the CO2 concentrating mechanism of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica in a bubble column,” Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 37, 8, 1019-1025.
  15. Wijanarko, A., Dianursanti, H., R.W. Soemantojo, and Ohtaguchi, K. (2006). “Effect of light illumination alteration on Chlorella vulgaris Buitenzorg’s CO2 fixation in bubble column photobioreactor,” International Journal on Algae, 8, 1, 53-60.
  16. Wirosaputro, S. (2002), Chlorella Untuk Kesehatan Global, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.50131

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 38


  • There are currently no refbacks.