Lignin Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Calcium Lactate: The Effect Of Polymers And Magnesium Hydroxide As A Flocculant Aids

https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.49705

A. Y. Zahrim(1*), A. Nasimah(2), S. Rosalam(3)

(1) Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; Sustainable Palm Oil Research Unit, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
(2) Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; Sustainable Palm Oil Research Unit, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
(3) Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is mainly associated with lignin has becoming a major concern due to its highly coloured appearance. The main colourant, i.e. lignin particles are difficult to be degraded in oil palm conventional biological ponding system. Coagulation/flocculation could remove the lignin prior to biological treatment and is considered vital to minimize the recalcitrance nature of palm oil mill effluent particles. In this study, the coagulation/flocculation process was investigated to remove lignin particles from aqueous solution. A non-toxic and biodegradable chemical i.e. calcium lactate was utilized as a destabilizer for the removal of lignin with an addition of several flocculants aid i.e. anionic polyacrylamide (APAM), polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) and magnesium hydroxide. The effect of coagulant and flocculant aids dosage was investigated. From this study, it was found that the optimum condition was at 0.7g/L of calcium lactate and 0.5-1.0mg/L of APAM with ~64% of lignin removal. At concentration of 4 mg/L, the removal of lignin for APAM and polyDADMAC is similar. This result shows that the calcium lactate has potential as a coagulant and the efficiency can be enhanced with an addition of polymeric flocculant aids.

Keywords


Calcium lactate, coagulation/flocculation, lignin, zeta potential, polymer, magnesium hydroxide.

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. BETANCUR, M., BONELLI, P. R., VELAISQUEZ, J. A. & CUKIERMAN, A. L. (2009) Potentiality of lignin from the Kraft pulping process for removal of trace nickel from wastewater: Effect of demineralisation. Bioresource Technology.
  2. BETANCUR, M., BONELLI, P. R., VELAISQUEZ, J. A. & CUKIERMAN, A. L. (2009) Potentiality of lignin from the Kraft pulping process for removal of trace nickel from wastewater: Effect of demineralisation. Bioresource Technology.
  3. CHANG, C.-N., MA, Y.-S., FANG, G.-C., CHAO, A. C., TSAI, M.-C. & SUNG, H.-F. (2004) Decolorizing of lignin wastewater using the photochemical UV/TiO2 process. Chemosphere, 56, 1011-1017.
  4. DEVESA-REY, R., BUSTOS, G., CRUZ, J. M. & MOLDES, A. B. (2012) Evaluation of Non-Conventional Coagulants to Remove Turbidity from Water. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223, 591-598.
  5. DEVESA-REY, R., FERNANDEZ, N., CRUZ, J. M. & MOLDES, A. B. (2011) Optimization of the dose of calcium lactate as a new coagulant for the coagulation-flocculation of suspended particles in water. Desalination, 280, 63-71.
  6. GAO, B.-Y., YUE, Q.-Y., WANG, Y. & ZHOU, W.-Z. (2007) Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride. Journal of Environmental Management, 82, 167- 172.
  7. HADDADIN, M. S., AL-NATOUR, R., AL- QSOUS, S. & ROBINSON, R. K. (2002) Bio-degradation of lignin in olive pomace by freshly-isolated species of Basidiomycete. Bioresource Technology, 82, 131-137.
  8. HO, C. C., TAN, Y. K. & WANG, C. W. (1984) The distribution of chemical constituents between the soluble and the particulate fractions of palm oil mill effluent and its significance on its utilisation/treatment. Agricultural Wastes, 11, 61-71.
  9. KARTHIK, M., DAFALE, N., PATHE, P. & NANDY, T. (2008) Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation- flocculation process as pretreatment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 721-730.
  10. LEENTVAAR, J. & REBHUN, M. (1982) Effect of magnesium and calcium precipitation on coagulation- flocculation with lime. Water Research, 16, 655-662.
  11. LEVLIN, E. (2008) Conductivity measurements for controlling municipal wastewater. Dep. of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH, S- 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden. 
  12. MA, J., WANG, C. & PENG, K. W. (2003) Electrophoretic deposition of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. Biomaterials, 24, 3505-3510.
  13. MAXIMOVA, N., A-STERBERG, M., KOLJONEN, K. & STENIUS, P. (2001) Lignin adsorption on cellulose fibre surfaces: Effect on surface chemistry, surface morphology and paper strength. Cellulose, 8, 113-125.
  14. NASSER, M. S. & JAMES, A. E. (2006) The effect of polyacrylamide charge density and molecular weight on the flocculation and sedimentation behaviour of kaolinite suspensions. Separation and Purification Technology, 52, 241-252.
  15. NASSER, M. S. & JAMES, A. E. (2007) Effect of polyacrylamide polymers on floc size and rheological behaviour of kaolinite suspensions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 301, 311-322.
  16. NEOH, C., LAM, C., LIM, C., YAHYA, A. & IBRAHIM, Z. (2014) Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent using growing cultures of Curvularia clavata. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 4397-4408.
  17. PENG, F. F. & DI, P. (1994) Effect of Multivalent Salts—Calcium and Aluminum on the Flocculation of Kaolin Suspension with Anionic Polyacrylamide. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 164, 229-237.
  18. PIAZZA, G. J., LORA, J. H. & GARCIA, R. A. (2014) Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin. Bioresource Technology, 152, 548-551.
  19. RAZALI, M. A. A., AHMAD, Z.&ARIFFIN, A. (2012) Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater with Various Molecular Weight of PolyDADMAC Induced Flocculation with Polyacrylamide in the Hybrid SystemAdvances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 2.
  20. SCHLESINGER, A., EISENSTADT, D., BAR-GIL, A., CARMELY, H., EINBINDER, S. & GRESSEL, J. (2012) Inexpensive non-toxic flocculation of microalgae contradicts theories; overcoming a major hurdle to bulk algal production. Biotechnology Advances, 30, 1023- 1030.
  21. UGURLU, M., GURSES, A., DOGAR, A. & YALCIN, M. (2008) The removal of lignin and phenol from paper mill effluents by electrocoagulation. Journal of Environmental Management, 87, 420-428.
  22. VANDAMME, D., FOUBERT, I., FRAEYE, I., MEESSCHAERT, B. & MUYLAERT, K. (2012) Flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris induced by high pH: Role of magnesium and calcium and practical implications. Bioresource Technology, 105, 114-119.
  23. WANG, Q., SARWAR JAHAN, M., LIU, S., MIAO, Q. & NI, Y. (2014) Lignin removal enhancement from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production by laccase- induced polymerization. Bioresource Technology.
  24. WU, J., XIAO, Y.-Z. & YU, H.-Q. (2005) Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm. Bioresource Technology, 96, 1357-1363.
  25. ZAHRIM, A. Y. & HILAL, N. (2011) Treatment of highly concentrated dye solution by coagulation/flocculation, sand filtration and nanofiltration. Water Resources and Industry, 3, 23-34.
  26. ZAHRIM, A. Y., NASIMAH, A. & HILAL, N. (2014) Pollutants analysis during conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME) ponding system and decolourisation of anaerobically treated POME via calcium lactate- polyacrylamide. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 4, 159-165.
  27. ZAHRIM, A. Y., TIZAOUI, C. & HILAL, N. (2010) Evaluation of several commercial synthetic polymers as flocculant aids for removal of highly concentrated C.I. Acid Black 210 dye. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 182, 624-630.
  28. ZAHRIM, A. Y., TIZAOUI, C. & HILAL, N. (2011) Removal of highly concentrated industrial grade leather dye: Study on several flocculation and sand filtration parameters. Separation Science and Technology, 46, 883-892.
  29. ZHAO, J., SU, R., GUO, X., LI, W. & FENG, N. (2014) Role of mixing conditions on coagulation performance and flocs breakage formed by magnesium hydroxide. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.49705

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 49 | views : 13

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.